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comfort women japan| 有名人の最新ニュースを読者にお届けします。

私たちは、人々が好きな有名人について読んで、それについて気分を良くすることができるスペースを作りたかったのです.私たちは、人々が有名人についてポジティブな方法でゴシップできる場所を作りたかった.
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。

私たちは、有名人の最新のゴシップを分析し、日本のポップ カルチャーの最新トレンドを分析することを何よりも愛しています。私たちはエンターテインメントのすべてに夢中になっており、私たちの情熱を世界と共有したいと考えています。当サイトへようこそ!

comfort women japan, /comfort-women-japan,

Video: Researchers claim this is the first video showing Korean ‘comfort women’

私たちは、人々が好きな有名人について読んで、それについて気分を良くすることができるスペースを作りたかったのです.私たちは、人々が有名人についてポジティブな方法でゴシップできる場所を作りたかった.
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。

comfort women japan, 2017-07-10, Researchers claim this is the first video showing Korean ‘comfort women’, This is the only known footage of “comfort women” in existence. Historians estimate that as many as 200,000 women and girls from occupied countries like Korea, China and the Philippines were forced to work in brothels run by the Japanese Imperial Army during WWII. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: http://bit.ly/2qiJ4dy

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Outline of the comfort women system

Establishment by Japanese military

Given that prostitution in Japan was pervasive and organized, it was logical to find military prostitution in the Japanese armed forces.[25] Military correspondence within the Imperial Japanese Army shows that there were a number of the aims for facilitating comfort stations: to reduce or prevent rape crimes by Japanese army personnel in an effort to prevent a worsening of anti-Japanese sentiment, to reduce venereal diseases among Japanese troops, and to prevent leakage of military secrets by civilians who were in contact with Japanese officers.[26] Carmen Argibay, a former member of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice, states that the Japanese government aimed to prevent atrocities like the Rape of Nanking by confining rape and sexual abuse to military-controlled facilities, or stop incidents from leaking to the international press should they occur.[27] She also states that the government wanted to minimize medical expenses on treating venereal diseases that the soldiers acquired from frequent and widespread rape, which hindered Japan’s military capacity.[28] Comfort women lived in sordid conditions, and were called “public toilets” by the Japanese.[29] Yuki Tanaka states that local brothels outside of the military’s reach had issues of security, since there were possibilities of spies disguised as workers of such private facilities.[30] Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi further states that the Japanese military used comfort women to satisfy disgruntled soldiers during World War II and prevent military revolt.[21] He also asserts that, despite the goal of reducing rape and venereal disease, the comfort stations did the opposite—aggravating rape and increasing the spread of venereal disease.[21] Comfort women stations were so prevalent that the Imperial Army offered accountancy classes on how to manage comfort stations, which included how to determine the actuarial “durability or perishability of the women procured.”[31]

Outline

In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Japan’s military closely regulated privately operated brothels in Manchuria.[32]

Comfort houses were first established in Shanghai after the Shanghai incident in 1932 as a response to wholesale rape of Chinese women by Japanese soldiers.[33] Okamura Yasuji, the chief of staff in Shanghai, ordered the construction of comfort houses to prevent further rape.[33] After the rapes of many Chinese women by Japanese troops during the Nanjing Massacre in 1937, the Japanese forces adopted the general policy of creating comfort stations in various places in Japanese occupied Chinese territory, “not because of their concern for the Chinese victims of rape by Japanese soldiers but because of their fear of creating antagonism among the Chinese civilians.”[33] According to Yoshiaki Yoshimi, comfort stations were established to avoid criticism from China, the United States of America and Europe following the case of massive rapes between battles in Shanghai and Nanjing.[34]

As Japan continued military expansion, the military found itself short of Japanese volunteers, and turned to local populations—abducting and coercing women into serving as sex slaves in the comfort stations.[35][36] Many women responded to calls to work as factory workers or nurses, and did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery.[37]

In the early stages of World War II, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping. Middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and in the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan, Manchukuo, and China. These sources soon dried up, especially in metropolitan Japan.[38] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire.[39] The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, mostly from Korea and from occupied China. An existing system of licensed prostitution within Korea made it easy for Japan to recruit females in large numbers.[30]

Many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels.[40] Based on false characterizations and payments—by Japanese or by local recruitment agents—which could help relieve family debts, many Korean girls enlisted to take the job. Furthermore, the South East Asia Translation and Interrogation Center (SEATIC) Psychological Warfare Interrogation Bulletin No.2 states that a Japanese facility-manager purchased Korean women for 300 to 1000 yen depending on their physical characteristics, who then became his property and were not released even after completing the servitude terms specified in the contract.[41] In northern Hebei province of China, Hui Muslim girls were recruited to “Huimin Girls’ school” to be trained as entertainers, but then forced to serve as sex slaves.[42] The American historian Gerhard Weinberg wrote that a major issue that no historian has examined whether the soldiers of the Indian National Army had used comfort women, there had been no investigation for it. Lebra wrote “None of those who have written on Bose’s Indian national army has investigated whether, while they were trained by the Japanese army, they were permitted to share in the ‘comfort’ provided by thousands of kidnapped Korean young women held as sex slaves by the Imperial Japanese Army at its camps. This might have provided them with some insight into the nature of Japanese, as opposed to British, colonial rule, as well what might be in store for their sisters and daughters.”[43]

Under the strain of the war effort, the military became unable to provide enough supplies to Japanese units; in response, the units made up the difference by demanding or looting supplies from the locals. The military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare. When the locals were considered hostile in China, Japanese soldiers carried out the “Three Alls Policy” (“kill all, burn all, loot all”) which included indiscriminately kidnapping and raping local civilians.[44][45][46]

Later archives

On April 17, 2007, Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Hirofumi Hayashi announced the discovery of seven official documents in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, suggesting that Imperial military forces – such as the Tokkeitai (Naval military police) – forced women whose fathers attacked the Kenpeitai (Japanese Army military police) to work in front-line brothels in China, Indochina, and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing to having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokkeitai members having arrested women on the streets and putting them in brothels after enforced medical examinations.[14]

On May 12, 2007, journalist Taichiro Kajimura announced the discovery of 30 Dutch government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced mass prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang.[47]

The South Korean government designated Bae Jeong-ja as a pro-Japanese collaborator (chinilpa) in September 2007 for recruiting comfort women.[48][49]

In 2014, China produced almost 90 documents from the archives of the Kwantung Army on the issue. According to China, the documents provide ironclad proof that the Japanese military forced Asian women to work in front-line brothels before and during World War II.[50]

In June 2014, more official documents were made public from the government of Japan’s archives, documenting sexual violence and women forced into sexual slavery, committed by Imperial Japanese soldiers in French Indochina and Indonesia.[51]

A 2015 study examined archival data which was previously difficult to access, partly due to the China-Japan Joint Communiqué of 1972 in which the Chinese government agreed not to seek any restitution for wartime crimes and incidents. New documents discovered in China shed light on facilities inside comfort stations operated within a Japanese army compound, and the conditions of the Korean comfort women. Documents were discovered verifying the Japanese Army as the funding agency for purchasing some comfort women.

Documents were found in Shanghai that showed details of how the Japanese Army went about opening comfort stations for Japanese troops in occupied Shanghai. Documents included the Tianjin Municipal Archives from the archival files of the Japanese government and the Japanese police during the periods of the occupation in World War II. Municipal archives from Shanghai and Nanjing were also examined. One conclusion reached was that the relevant archives in Korea are distorted. A conclusion of the study was that the Japanese Imperial government, and the colonial government in Korea, tried to avoid recording the illegal mobilization of comfort women. It was concluded that they burned most of the records immediately before the surrender; however, the study confirmed that some documents and records survived.[52]

Number of comfort women

Professor Su Jiliang concludes that during the seven-year period from 1938 to 1945, “comfort women” in the territory occupied by the Japanese numbered 360,000 to 410,000, among whom the Chinese were the largest group, about 200,000.
Lack of official documentation has made estimating the total number of comfort women difficult. Vast amounts of material pertaining to war crimes, and the responsibility of the nation’s highest leaders, were either destroyed or concealed on the orders of the Japanese government at the end of the war.[54] Historians have arrived at various estimates by looking at surviving documentation, which indicates the ratio of soldiers in a particular area to the number of women, and replacement rates of the women.[55]

Most academic researchers and media typically point to Yoshiaki’s estimate as the most probable range of the numbers of women involved. This figure contrasts with the inscriptions on monuments in the United States such as those in New Jersey, New York, Virginia, and California, which state the number of comfort women as “more than 200,000”.[56]

The BBC quotes “200,000 to 300,000”, and the International Commission of Jurists quotes “estimates of historians of 100,000 to 200,000 women.”[57]

Countries of origin

Chinese and Malayan girls forcibly taken from Penang by the Japanese to work as ‘comfort girls’ for the troops[58]

According to State University of New York at Buffalo professor Yoshiko Nozaki and other sources, the majority of the women were from Korea and China.[59][60] Chuo University professor and historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi discovered an abundance of documentation and testimony that proves the existence of 2,000 comfort women stations where approximately 200,000 Korean, Filipina, Taiwanese, Indonesian, Burmese, Dutch, Australian, and Japanese women, many of whom were teenagers, were confined and forced to perform sexual activities with Japanese troops.[61] According to Qiu Peipei of Vassar College, comfort women were replaced with other women at a rapid rate, making her estimates of 200,000-400,000 comfort women plausible, with the majority being Chinese women.[62][63] Ikuhiko Hata, a professor of Nihon University, estimated the number of women working in the licensed pleasure quarter was fewer than 20,000 and that they were 40% Japanese, 20% Koreans, 10% Chinese, with others making up the remaining 30%. According to Hata, the total number of government-regulated prostitutes in Japan was only 170,000 during World War II.[64] Others came from the Philippines, Taiwan, the Dutch East Indies, and other Japanese-occupied countries and regions.[65] Some Dutch women, captured in Dutch colonies in Asia, were also forced into sexual slavery.[66]

In further analysis of the Imperial Army medical records for venereal disease treatment from 1940, Yoshimi concluded that if the percentages of women treated reflected the general makeup of the total comfort women population, Korean women made up 51.8 percent, Chinese 36 percent and Japanese 12.2 percent.[21]

In 1997, Bruce Cumings, a historian of Korea, wrote that Japan had forced quotas to supply the comfort women program, and that Korean men helped recruit the victims. Cumings stated that between 100,000 and 200,000 Korean girls and women were recruited.[67] In Korea, the daughters of the gentry and the bureaucracy were spared from being sent into the “comfort women corps” unless they or their families showed signs of pro-independence tendencies, and the overwhelming majority of the Korean girls taken into the “comfort women corps” came from the poor.[68] The Army and Navy often subcontracted the work of taking girls into the “comfort women corps” in Korea to contractors, who were usually associated in some way with organized crime groups, who were paid for girls they presented.[68] Though a substantial minority of the contractors in Korea were Japanese, the majority were Korean.[68]

During the initial invasion of Dutch East Indies, Japanese soldiers raped many Indonesian and European women and girls. The Kenpeitai established the comfort women program to control the problem. The Kenpeitai forced and coerced many interned women to serve as prostitutes, including several hundred European women. A few of these chose to live in the homes of Japanese officers to serve one man as a sex slave rather than many men in a brothel.[69] One such European woman, K’tut Tantri, wrote a book describing her ordeal.[70] A Dutch government study described the methods used by the Japanese military to seize the women by force.[71] It concluded that among the 200 to 300 European women found in the Japanese military brothels, “some sixty five were most certainly forced into prostitution”.[72] Others, faced with starvation in the refugee camps, agreed to offers of food and payment for work, the nature of which was not completely revealed to them.[73][74][75][76][77] Some of the women also volunteered in hopes protecting the younger ones. The women forced into prostitution may therefore be much higher than the Dutch record have previously indicated. The number of Dutch women that were sexually assaulted or molested were also largely ignored.[78] It was not until individuals and groups such as the Foundation of Japanese Honorary Debts began advocating for victims of the Japanese occupation that the plight of Dutch comfort women entered the collective conscience.[79] As well as being raped and sexually assaulted every day and night, the Dutch girls lived in constant fear of beatings and other physical violence.[80]

J.F. van Wagtendonk and the Dutch Broadcast Foundation estimated a total number of 400 Dutch girls were taken from the camps to become comfort women.[81][82]

Besides Dutch women, many Javanese were also recruited from Indonesia as comfort women including around 1000 East Timorese women and girls who also used as sexual slaves.[83] Most were adolescent girls aged 14–19 who had completed some education and were deceived through promises of higher education in Tokyo or Singapore. Common destinations of comfort women from Java included Burma, Thailand, and Eastern Indonesia. Interviews conducted with former comfort women also suggest that some women came from the island of Flores. After the war, many Javanese comfort women who survived stayed in the locations where they had been trafficked to and became integrated into local populations.[84]

Melanesian women from New Guinea were also used as comfort women. Local women were recruited from Rabaul as comfort women, along with some number of mixed Japanese-Papuan women born to Japanese fathers and Papuan mothers.[15] One Australian Captain, David Hutchinson-Smith, also mentioned of some mixed-race, young Japanese-Papuan girls who were also conscripted as comfort women.[19]

To date, only one Japanese woman has published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former comfort woman forced to work for Showa soldiers in Taiwan published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota.[85]

More than 2,000 Taiwanese women were forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese military, as of 2020 only two were still believed to be alive.[86] Yoshiaki Yoshimi notes that more than half of Taiwanese comfort women were minors.[87][88]

Treatment of comfort women

English Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Based on a statement made by Representative Seijuro Arahune of the Japanese Diet in 1975 in which he claimed to cite numbers provided by Korean authorities during the 1965 Korea-Japan Treaty negotiations,[89] as many as three-fourths of Korean comfort women may have died during the war, although the validity of this statement has since been brought into question as the number does not seem to be based on an actual investigation on the matter.[90] It is estimated that most of the survivors became infertile because of the multiple rapes or venereal diseases contracted following the rapes.[91]

Since comfort women were forced to travel to the battlefields with the Japanese Imperial Army, many comfort women perished as Allied forces overwhelmed Japan’s Pacific defense and annihilated Japanese encampments. In certain cases, the Japanese military executed Korean comfort women when they fled from losing battles with the Allied Forces. During the last stand of Japanese forces in 1944–45, “comfort women” were often forced to commit suicide or were killed.[94] At the Truk naval base, 70 “comfort women” were killed prior to the expected American assault as the Navy mistook the American air raid that destroyed Truk as the prelude to an American landing while during the Battle of Saipan “comfort women” were among those who committed suicide by jumping off the cliffs of Saipan.[94] In Burma, there were cases of Korean “comfort women” committing suicide by swallowing cyanide pills or being killed by having a hand grenade tossed into their dug-outs.[94] During the Battle of Manila, when Japanese sailors ran amok and simply killed everyone, there were cases of “comfort women” being killed, though there does not seem to have been any systematic policy of killing “comfort women”.[94] The Japanese government had told the Japanese colonists on Saipan that the American “white devils” were cannibals, and so the Japanese population preferred suicide to falling into the hands of the American “white devils”. It is possible that many of the Asian “comfort women” may also have believed this. British soldiers fighting in Burma often reported that the Korean “comfort women” whom they captured were astonished to learn that the British were not going to eat them.[94] Ironically, given this claim, there were cases of starving Japanese troops cut off on remote Pacific islands or trapped in the jungles of Burma turning towards cannibalism, and there were at least several cases where “comfort women” in Burma and on Pacific islands were killed to provide protein for the Imperial Japanese Army.[94]

According to an account by a survivor, she was beaten when she attempted to resist being raped.[95] The women who were not prostitutes prior to joining the “comfort women corps”, especially those taken in by force, were normally “broken in” by being raped.[96] One Korean woman, Kim Hak-sun, stated in a 1991 interview about how she was drafted into the “comfort women corps” in 1941: “When I was 17 years old, the Japanese soldiers came along in a truck, beat us [her and a friend], and then dragged us into the back. I was told if I were drafted, I could earn lots of money in a textile factory … The first day I was raped and the rapes never stopped … I was born a woman but never lived as a woman … I feel sick when I come close to a man. Not just Japanese men, but all men-even my own husband who saved me from the brothel. I shiver whenever I see a Japanese flag … Why should I feel ashamed? I don’t have to feel ashamed.”[97] Kim stated that she was raped 30–40 times a day, every day of the year during her time as a “comfort woman”.[98] Reflecting their dehumanized status, Army and Navy records where referring to the movement of “comfort women” always used the term “units of war supplies”.[99]

Military doctors and medical workers frequently raped the women during medical examinations.[100] One Japanese Army doctor, Asō Tetsuo, testified that the “comfort women” were seen as “female ammunition” and as “public toilets”—as literally just things to be used and abused—with some “comfort women” being forced to donate blood for the treatment of wounded soldiers.[98] At least 80% of the “comfort women” were Korean, who were assigned to the lower ranks, while Japanese and European women went to the officers. For example, Dutch women captured in the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia) were reserved exclusively for the officers.[101] Korea is a Confucian country where premarital sex was widely disapproved of, and since the Korean teenagers taken into the “comfort women corps” were almost always virgins, it was felt that this was the best way to limit the spread of venereal diseases that would otherwise incapacitate soldiers and sailors.[102]

Studio portrait of Jan Ruff O’Herne, taken shortly before she, her mother and sisters, and thousands of other Dutch women and children were interned by the Imperial Japanese Army in Ambarawa. Over the following months, O’Herne and six other Dutch women were repeatedly raped and beaten, day and night, by IJA personnel.[103]

Ten Dutch women were taken by force from prison camps in Java by officers of the Imperial Japanese Army to become forced sex slaves in February 1944. They were systematically beaten and raped day and night.[95][104] As a victim of the incident, in 1990, Jan Ruff-O’Herne testified to a U.S. House of Representatives committee:

Many stories have been told about the horrors, brutalities, suffering and starvation of Dutch women in Japanese prison camps. But one story was never told, the most shameful story of the worst human rights abuse committed by the Japanese during World War II: The story of the “Comfort Women”, the jugun ianfu, and how these women were forcibly seized against their will, to provide sexual services for the Japanese Imperial Army. In the “comfort station” I was systematically beaten and raped day and night. Even the Japanese doctor raped me each time he visited the brothel to examine us for venereal disease.[95][104]

In their first morning at the brothel, photographs of Ruff-O’Herne and the others were taken and placed on the veranda which was used as a reception area for the Japanese personnel who would choose from these photographs. Over the following four months the girls were raped and beaten day and night, with those who became pregnant forced to have abortions. After four harrowing months, the girls were moved to a camp at Bogor, in West Java, where they were reunited with their families. This camp was exclusively for women who had been put into military brothels, and the Japanese warned the inmates that if anyone told what had happened to them, they and their family members would be killed. Several months later the O’Hernes were transferred to a camp at Batavia, which was liberated on August 15, 1945.[103][105][106]

Suki Falconberg, a comfort women survivor, shared her experiences:

Serial penetration by many men is not a mild form of torture. Just the tears at the vaginal opening feel like fire applied to a cut. Your genitals swell and bruise. Damage to the womb and other internal organs can also be tremendous … [B]eing used as a public dumping ground by those men left me with deep shame that I still feel in the pit of my stomach – it’s like a hard, heavy, sick feeling that never entirely goes away. They saw not just my completely helpless, naked body, but they heard me beg, and cry. They reduced me to something low and disgusting that suffered miserably in front of them … Even years later, it has taken tremendous courage for me to put these words on the page, so deep is the cultural shame … [22]

At Blora, twenty European women and girls were imprisoned in two houses. Over a period of three weeks, as Japanese units passed by the houses, the women and their daughters were brutally and repeatedly raped.[80]

In the Bangka Island, most of the Australian nurses captured were raped before they were murdered.[107]

The Japanese officers involved received some punishment by Japanese authorities at the end of the war.[108] After the end of the war, 11 Japanese officers were found guilty, with one soldier being sentenced to death by the Batavia War Criminal Court.[108] The court decision found that the charge violated was the Army’s order to hire only voluntary women.[108] Victims from East Timor testified they were forced into slavery even when they were not old enough to have started menstruating. The court testimonies state that these prepubescent girls were repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers[109] while those who refused to comply were killed.[110][111]

Hank Nelson, emeritus professor at the Australian National University‘s Asia Pacific Research Division, has written about the brothels run by the Japanese military in Rabaul, in what is now Papua New Guinea during WWII. He quotes from the diary of Gordon Thomas, a POW in Rabaul. Thomas writes that the women working at the brothels “most likely served 25 to 35 men a day” and that they were “victims of the yellow slave trade”.[112] Nelson also quotes from Kentaro Igusa, a Japanese naval surgeon who was stationed in Rabaul. Igusa wrote in his memoirs that the women continued to work through infection and severe discomfort, though they “cried and begged for help”.[112]

Contrarily, reports based on interrogation of Korean comfort women captured after the Siege of Myitkyina in Burma indicated that they lived comparatively well, received many gifts, and were paid wages while they were in Burma.[1] The label ‘homecoming women‘, originally referring to comfort women who returned to Korea, has remained as a pejorative term for sexually active women in South Korea.[113]

Sterility, abortion and reproduction

The Japanese Army and Navy went to great lengths to avoid venereal diseases with large numbers of condoms being handed out for free.[114] For example, documents show that in July 1943 the Army handed out 1,000 condoms for soldiers in Negri Sembilan and another 10,000 for soldiers in Perak.[114] The “comfort women” were usually injected with salvarsan, which together with damage to the vagina caused by rape were the causes of unusually high rates of sterility among the “comfort women”.[114][115] As the war went on and as the shortages caused by the sinking of almost the entire Japanese merchant marine by American submarines kicked in, medical care for the “comfort women” declined as dwindling medical supplies were reserved for the servicemen.[114] As Japanese logistics broke down as the American submarines sank one Japanese ship after another, condoms had to be washed and reused, reducing their effectiveness.[114] In the Philippines, “comfort women” were billed by Japanese doctors if they required medical treatment.[94] In many cases, “comfort women” who were seriously ill were abandoned to die alone.[94]

The Survey of Korean Comfort Women Used by Japanese Soldiers said that 30% of the interviewed former Korean comfort women produced biological children and 20% adopted children after World War II.[116]

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Composition[edit]

The statue consists of a bronze statue designed by Jonas Roces[1] and a historical marker installed by the NHCP.[2] The statue took three months to complete.[2]

The bronze statue is two meters tall, depicting a representation of an estimated 1,000 Filipinas who have undergone sexual slavery during World War II.[2] It depicts a grieving blindfolded woman in traditional Maria Clara attire.[3] The pedestal features the historical marker on its front, while its back cites the effort and donations of groups and individuals. On the base of the backside is a small plaque, with the title of the statue as “Filipina Comfort Women” and the name of its designer.[4]

Roces has insisted that the statue is not made as means to protest against either the government of Japan and the Philippines but as a “reminder” of Philippine history that he wanted future generations not to forget. Aside from the sculpture as a whole symbolizing the Filipino comfort women, the statue’s other elements had symbolism. According to the sculpture’s artist, the blindfold represents “injustice or the continuous desire for justice” of surviving comfort women who are seeking a satisfactory official apology and compensation from the Japanese government. The comfort women’s resilience is signified by the sculpture’s dress which is embellished with images of the coral vine, a perennial plant also known locally as the “cadena de amor”. The position of the statue when it was still installed in Manila was a reference to Japan’s title as the “Land of the Rising Sun”; the statue did not face the sea where the sun sets.[5]

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Teaching About The Comfort Women During World War Ii And The Use Of Personal Stories Of The Victims - Association For Asian Studies

Contents

Dutch East Indies[edit]

Korea[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

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Column of Strength statue[edit]

The San Francisco Comfort Women memorial and its bronze, 10-foot-tall “Comfort Women” Column of Strength statue were unveiled on September 22, 2017.[7] The memorial statue was designed by the Carmel-based sculptor Steven Whyte. It depicts three teen-age girls, with each being of a specific nationality—Chinese, Korean, and Philippine—and altogether representing the estimated 200,000 “comfort women” from countries across East and Southeast Asia that were occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.[7] These three girls are cast in bronze, standing in a circle atop a pedestal and holding hands in a back-to-back posture. Standing next to the pedestal and gazing up at them is another bronze figure of a halmoni (Korean for grandmother). It bears a resemblance to the Korean human rights activist Kim Hak-Sun, who was a victim of the forced enslavement to the Imperial Japanese Army during WWII and the first woman in Korea to come forward publicly about her experiences as a comfort woman.[7]

Steven Whyte[edit]

Steven Whyte, the sculptor of the “Comfort Women” Column of Strength statue, is a British-American artist living in Carmel, California. His works also include a life-sized Jumbo the Elephant at Tufts University and a multi-sculptures monument entitled National Salute to Bob Hope and the Military.[8]

Whyte describes himself as “a figurative sculptor,” with a strong emphasis on the creation of characters in his works.[9] He has a preference in human form as the sculpture subject, and often works with live models when designing sculptures. For “Comfort Women” Column of Strength, he found models from the Central Coast and designed the figures of the teen-age Chinese, Korean, and Philippine girls partially based on the models.[9]

Whyte also describes himself as a “sculptor of people” who prioritizes “the emotional quality and impact of the sculpture” and intends for his work to become catalysts for public responses, interactions, and conversations.[10] To make “Comfort Women” Column of Strength resonate with its audience emotionally, Whyte puts an emphasis on the girls’ strength and solidarity through their posture, and makes them look at viewers directly “in an almost accusatory way” and with “post-traumatic” stress and shock.[11]

Whyte reflects on the Column of Strength statue that “this is a story that has been hidden for so long that if it serves a purpose —to make people look into history and learn from history a little more— then my work is done.”[7]

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1. The issue of comfort women between Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK)

  • (1) As the issue of comfort women has been a major diplomatic issue in Japan-ROK relations since the 1990s, Japan has sincerely dealt with it. The issue concerning property and claims between Japan and the ROK was settled completely and finally in 1965 through the Agreement on the Settlement of Problem Concerning Property and Claims and on the Economic Cooperation between Japan and the ROK (see Foreign Minister Kono’s statement). However, from the perspective of facilitating feasible remedies for the former comfort women, the people and the Government of Japan cooperated to establish “Asian Women’s Fund (PDF) ” in 1995, through which they carried out medical and welfare projects and provided “atonement money” to each former comfort woman in Asian and other countries, including the ROK. In addition, successive Prime Ministers have sent letters expressing their “apology and remorse” to former comfort women. The Government of Japan has made every effort as mentioned above.
  • (2) Furthermore, as a result of great diplomatic efforts, the Governments of Japan and the ROK confirmed that the issue of comfort women was “resolved finally and irreversibly” with the agreement reached at the Japan-ROK Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in December 2015. The Japanese and ROK leaders also confirmed that they would take responsibility as leaders to implement this agreement, and that they would deal with various issues based on the spirit of this agreement. This agreement was welcomed by the international community, including then Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon and the U.S. Government.
    In accordance with this agreement, in August 2016, the Government of Japan contributed 1 billion yen to “the Reconciliation and Healing Foundation” established by the Government of the ROK. The Foundation provided financial support to 35 out of the 47 former comfort women who were alive at the time of the agreement, and to the bereaved families of 64 out of the 199 former comfort women who were deceased at the time. The agreement has been received positively by many former comfort women.
  • (3) However, in December 2016, a comfort woman statue(Note) was installed on the sidewalk facing the Consulate-General of Japan in Busan by a civic group in the ROK. Subsequently, the Moon Jae-in administration was newly inaugurated in May 2017. Based on the results of the assessment made by the Taskforce to Review the Agreement on Comfort Women Issue (see Foreign Minister Kono’s statement on the assessment) under the direct supervision of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the ROK, Foreign Minister Kang Kyung-wha announced the position of the Government of the ROK on January 9, 2018 (see Foreign Minister Kono’s press conference) as follows: i) it will not ask for a renegotiation with Japan; and ii) the 2015 agreement, which fails to properly reflect the wishes of the victims, does not constitute a true resolution of the issue. In July 2018, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family of the ROK announced that it would arrange a reserve budget to “appropriate the full amount” of the 1 billion yen contributed by the Government of Japan and contribute this amount to “the Gender Equality Fund”. In November, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family announced that it would proceed with its dissolution of “the Reconciliation and Healing Foundation” (see Foreign Minister Kono’s press conference).
  • (4) Moreover, on January 8, 2021, in the lawsuit filed by former comfort women and others against the Government of Japan, the Seoul Central District Court of the ROK rendered a judgment which ordered the Government of Japan, inter alia, to pay compensation to the plaintiff, denying the application of the principle of State immunity under international law. On January 23, 2021, the judgment was confirmed. Japan has repeatedly expressed its position that this lawsuit must be dismissed because it is not acceptable for the Government of Japan to be subject to the jurisdiction of the ROK in accordance with this principle of State immunity in international law. As mentioned above, the issue concerning property and claims between Japan and the ROK, including the issue of comfort women, was “settled completely and finally” with the Agreement on the Settlement of Problem concerning Property and Claims and on the Economic Co-operation between Japan and the ROK of 1965 (see Foreign Minister Kono’s statement). Furthermore, it was confirmed that the issue of comfort women was “resolved finally and irreversibly” with the agreement between Japan and the ROK in 2015. Therefore, this judgment is extremely regrettable and absolutely unacceptable, as it is clearly contrary to international law and agreements between the two countries. It is Japan’s policy that it once again strongly urges the ROK to immediately take appropriate measures to remedy the status of its breaches of international law on its own responsibility as a country.
  • (5) The Japan-ROK agreement in 2015 is an agreement between two countries, and it must be implemented responsibly. The ROK has a responsibility to steadily implement the agreement not only to Japan but also to the international community. As stated above, the Government of Japan has implemented all measures it committed to under the Japan-ROK agreement. The ROK government itself also acknowledges that this agreement is an official agreement between the two governments and the international community is closely following the ROK’s implementation of the agreement. The Government of Japan will continue to strongly urge the ROK to steadily implement the Japan-ROK agreement.

(Note) For the sake of practical convenience, the statues in front of the Embassy of Japan in Seoul and the Consulate-General of Japan in Busan are referred to as “comfort woman statues.” However, the use of this term is not a reflection of the recognition that these statues correctly embody the reality of those women at that time.

2. The comfort women issue in the international community

  • (1) The Government of Japan has sincerely dealt with issues of reparations, property, and claims pertaining to the Second World War, including the comfort women issue, under the San Francisco Peace Treaty (1 (PDF) , 2 (PDF) ), which the Government of Japan concluded with 45 countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, and through other bilateral treaties, agreements, and instruments. These issues including those of claims of individuals have already been legally settled with the parties to these treaties, agreements, and instruments.
  • (2) On this basis, the Government of Japan has actively taken measures to recover the honor of former comfort women and to provide remedies for them. In 1995, the AWF(PDF) was established with the cooperation of the people and the Government of Japan for the purpose of carrying out atonement and remedy projects for former comfort women. The Government of Japan provided a total of 4.8 billion yen. Approximately 600 million yen was donated to the AWF by the people of Japan. The Government of Japan extended maximum cooperation to the AWF, which implemented medical and welfare support projects and provided “atonement money,” to offer realistic relief to former comfort women. As part of the AWF’s projects, “atonement money” (2 million yen per person), which was funded by donations from Japanese people, was provided to 285 former comfort women (211 for the Philippines, 61 in the Republic of Korea, 13 in Taiwan). Moreover, the AWF provided funds in those countries/areas for medical and welfare support funded with contributions by the Government of Japan. (3 million yen per person in the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, 1.2 million yen for the Philippines) (for a total of 5 million yen per person in the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, 3.2 million yen per person in the Philippines). Furthermore, using funds contributed by the Government of Japan, the AWF extended support for projects to promote social welfare services for elderly people in Indonesia as well as projects to help improve the living conditions of former comfort women in the Netherlands.
  • (3) When the “atonement money” as well as the medical and welfare support were provided to individual former comfort women, then-Prime Ministers (namely, PM Ryutaro Hashimoto, PM Keizo Obuchi, PM Yoshiro Mori and PM Junichiro Koizumi) sent signed letters expressing apologies and remorse directly to each former comfort woman.
  • (4) As stated in the Statement by the Prime Minister issued in 2015, Japan will engrave in its heart the past, when the dignity and honour of many women were severely injured during wars in the 20th century. Japan will lead the world in making the 21st century an era in which women’s human rights are not infringed upon.
  • (5) Despite such sincere efforts by the Government of Japan, there are claims that can hardly be said to be based on historical facts, such as the allegations of “forceful taking away” of comfort women and “sex slaves” as well as the figures “200,000 persons” or “several hundred thousands” for the total number of comfort women.
    The Government of Japan’s position regarding these claims is as follows;

    • “Forceful taking away”
      “Forceful taking away” of comfort women by the Japanese military and government authorities could not be confirmed in any of the documents that the Government of Japan was able to identify. (This position is stated, for example, in a written answer approved by the Cabinet on December 16, 1997 to the question by a member of the House of Representatives.)
    • “Sex slaves”
      The expression “sex slaves” contradicts the facts so that it should not be used. This point was confirmed with the ROK at the occasion of the Japan-ROK Agreement in December 2015 and the expression “sex slaves” is not used in the agreement.
    • Figures such as “200,000 persons” for the total number of comfort women
      The figure “200,000 persons” lacks concrete evidence. As stated in the report of the Government study’s result of August 4, 1993, it is virtually impossible to determine the total number of comfort women as no documents have been found which either indicate the total number or give sufficient ground to establish an estimate.
  • (6) The Government of Japan has been making efforts to provide clear explanations regarding its sincere efforts and official position in international fora. Specifically, at the UN, the Government of Japan has explained its position at a number of opportunities such as during the examination of the Seventh and Eighth Periodic Reports by the Government of Japan on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in February 2016 and the Ninth Periodic Report on the Implementation of the CEDAW in September 2021. In February 2017, the Government of Japan also submitted its amicus curiae brief(PDF) to the U.S. Supreme Court for the trial concerning a comfort woman statue installed in Glendale in the suburbs of Los Angeles, United States.

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商品の説明

レビュー

‘One of the achievements of this volume is that it successfully personalises some of the ‘comfort’ women. It exhaustively details the inhumane process by which they were ‘recruited’ or forced into what amounted to sexual slavery and the degrading day-to-day treatment meted out to them by recruiters, managers and soldiers if the women refused to ‘comfort’ soldiers, became pregnant or were ill. Even more significantly, this volume attempts to establish the figures that helped to implement the ‘comfort’ women system, including senior Japanese military officers, Ministry of War bureaucrats, brothel owners and their recruiters and medical staff.’
– Intersections, Issue 9.

著者について

Yuki Tanaka is at Keiwa College in Japan and is the co-author of Hidden Horrors:Japanese War Crimes in World War II (1995).

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近代日本の公娼・慰安婦の歴史[編集]

一般的な公娼[編集]

近代公娼制は、性病対策と軍隊慰安を目的としてフランスで確立し、その後ヨーロッパ各国、アメリカ合衆国や日本にも導入された[7]

1802年、フランスで警察による公娼登録が開始され[10]1828年にはフランス風紀局衛生課が設置され、検診で性病の見つかった娼婦は病院に送られ、治療後、売春業の許可がおりるという体制になった[11]。18世紀末に梅毒が流行し、ナポレオン戦争による大規模の人の移動のため性病がヨーロッパ中にひろがったが、同時に医学研究もすすんだ[12]。プロシアでは一旦廃止されたあと1851年に性病予防のために公娼制度が軍によって再開され[10]、風紀警察が特別に設置された[13]。イギリスはクリミア戦争の際の性病問題に対してイギリス軍の提案[14]1864年から1869年にかけての伝染病(性病)法によって公娼制度が導入され[10]、警察が娼婦とみなした女性を逮捕し、検診を強制できるようになり、性病に感染していない場合は娼婦(公娼)として正式に登録された[14]1873年ウィーン国際医療会議で売春統制を各国共通にするための国際法が提案された[10]

1870年代になってジョセフィン・バトラー[15] らの売春婦救済運動(廃娼運動[16])が盛んになり、19世紀末のイギリスやアメリカ合衆国では本国では公娼制が廃止される[16] が、植民地においては存在し続けた[17][18][19]

明治時代[編集]

日本の公娼制は年季奉公の一形態として発展し、徳川幕府に認可された遊廓が形成されていた。明治維新後の1873年(明治6年)に公娼取締規則が制定された。

朝鮮での遊郭業と日清戦争[編集]

1876年李氏朝鮮日朝修好条規を締結した開国して以降は、釜山元山に日本人居留地が形成され、日本式の遊廓なども開業していった[20]1881年10月には釜山で「貸座敷並ニ芸娼妓営業規則」が定められ、元山でも「娼妓類似営業の取締」が行われた[20]。翌1882年には釜山領事により「貸座敷及び芸娼妓に関する布達」が発布され、貸座敷業者と芸娼妓には課税され、芸娼妓には営業鑑札(営業許可証)の取得を義務づけた[20]1885年には京城領事館達「売淫取締規則」が出され、ソウルでの売春業は禁止された[21]

しかし、1894年1895年日清戦争後には料理店での芸妓雇用が公認(営業許可制)され[21]1902年には釜山と仁川1903年に元山、1904年にソウル、1905年鎮南浦で遊郭が形成された[20]

娼妓取締規則と婦女売買国際条約[編集]

1900年には娼妓取締規則が制定され、娼妓の年齢を18歳以上とし(従来は15 – 16歳)、住居や外出に制限を加えた。翌年の1901年に軍医の菊池蘇太郎は「軍隊ニオケル花柳病予防法」を発表し、公娼制度の目的は性病(花柳病)予防と風俗頽壊防止を目的としていたと記している[22]

廃娼運動は国際条約に結実し、1904年5月に欧州12カ国で「醜業を行わしむるための婦女売買取締に関する国際協定」が、ついで1910年5月に13カ国間で「醜業を行わしむるための婦女売買禁止に関する国際条約」が締約された。国際連盟では規約23条でこれら取決めの一般監視を行うとしたため、1921年9月の第二回国際連盟総会において婦人及児童ノ売買禁止ニ関スル国際条約として再締約された(23カ国)[23]。このさいに日本も条約に加盟したが、すでに娼妓取締規則があり年齢に関する条項(21歳未満を禁止)については留保した。

日露戦争と妓生制の崩壊[編集]

1905年日露戦争の勝利によって日本が朝鮮保護国として以降はさらに日本の売春業者が増加した[21]ソウル城双林洞には新町遊廓が作られ、これは財源ともなった[20][21]1906年統監府が置かれるとともに居留民団法も施行、営業取締規則も各地で出されて制度が整備されていった[20]。同1906年には龍山に桃山遊廓(のち弥生遊廓)が開設した[21]。日本人の居住地で知られる京城の新町、釜山の緑町、平壌の柳町、大田の春日町などには数十軒から数百軒を数える遊郭が設けられ、地方の小都市にも十数件の青桜が軒を連ねた[24]

日本人売春業者が盛んになると同時に朝鮮人業者も増加していくなか、ソウル警務庁は市内の娼婦営業を禁止した[20]1908年9月には警視庁は妓生取締令・娼妓取締令を出し、朝鮮の伝統的な売春業である妓生を当局許可制にし、公娼制に組み込んだ[20]。1908年10月1日には、取締理由として、売買人の詐術によって本意ではなく従事することを防ぐためと説明された[20]

日本統治下の朝鮮[編集]

1910年韓国併合以降は統監府時代よりも取締が強化され、1916年3月31日には朝鮮総督府警務総監部令第4号「貸座敷娼妓取締規則」(同年5月1日施行)が公布、朝鮮全土で公娼制が実施され、日本人・朝鮮人娼妓ともに年齢下限が日本内地より1歳低い17歳以上に設定された[21]

他方、併合初期には日本式の性管理政策は徹底できずに、また1910年代前半の女性売買の形態としては騙した女性を妻として売りとばす事例が多く、のちの1930年代にみられるような誘拐して娼妓として売る事例はまだ少なかった[21]。当時、新町・桃山両遊廓は堂々たる貸座敷[21][25] であるのに対して、「曖昧屋」とも呼ばれた私娼をおく小料理店はソウル市に130余軒が散在していた[21][25]

第一次世界大戦以降[編集]

第一次世界大戦前後には戦争景気で1915年から1920年にかけての朝鮮 京城花柳界は全盛を極めた[21]。朝鮮人娼妓1913年には585人であったが1919年には1314人に増加している[21]1918年の京城・本町の日本人居留地と鍾路署管内での臨検では、戸籍不明者や、13歳の少女などが検挙されている[21]。1918年6月12日の『京城日報』は「京城にては昨今地方からポツト出て来た若い女や、或は花の都として京城を憧憬れてゐる朝鮮婦人の虚栄心を挑発して不良の徒が巧に婦女を誘惑して京城に誘ひ出し散々弄んだ揚句には例の曖昧屋に売飛して逃げるといふ謀計の罠に掛つて悲惨な境遇に陥つて居るものが著しく殖えた」と報道した[21]

1910年代の戦争景気以前には、朝鮮人女性の人身売買・誘拐事件は「妻」と詐称して売るものが多かったが、1910年代後半には路上で甘言に騙され、誘拐される事例が増加している[21]。1920年代には売春業者に売却された朝鮮人女性は年間3万人となり、値段は500円 – 1,200円であった[26]

大正から昭和に入ると、公娼廃止運動が盛んになる。宗教家の高島米峰報知新聞 1931年4月5日号に発表した「国際信義と公娼廃止」において、「今や、公娼廃止は、世界の通念であるばかりでなく、日本国内においても、既に一般の与論となっている。現に、県会で廃娼を決議したものは九県に上り、また、廃娼を断行したものは二県となった。そうして、中央社会事業恊会の如き、中央教化団体連合会の如き、大日本宗教大会の如き、大阪社会事業連盟の如き、関東々北医師大会の如き、岩手県医師会の如き、最も有力なる団体が、それぞれの立場々々からして、公娼制度の撤廃を決議して居る。今はただ、内務大臣が、明治三十三年に公布した「娼妓取締規則」を撤廃しさえすれば、それでよいというだけになって居るのである」と当時の状況について記している[23]

軍隊による公娼(慰安婦)[編集]

強姦は戦時に限らず平時でも発生する[27][28] が、戦争におけるレイプなどの性暴力については1990年代以降、「戦時性暴力」として研究されている[29][30]。戦争において性暴力は、勝者への褒美、敗者への懲罰、また単なる快楽として行使されてきた[31]
秦郁彦によれば、第二次世界大戦当時の戦地での性政策には大別して自由恋愛型(私娼中心。イギリス軍、米軍)、慰安所型(日本、ドイツ、フランス[32])、レイプ型(ソ連)の3つの類型があった[33]

日本における慰安婦の制度・運用・実態に関する研究については、戦後の経緯から主に日華事変以降(特に大東亜戦争期)に限定されており、さらにその論争の中でもイデオロギーに基づく主張が入り込み、客観的といえない主張や事実解釈も多い。

日清戦争から満州事変まで[編集]

この節の加筆が望まれています。

日中戦争(支那事変)[編集]

1937年7月7日の盧溝橋事件を端緒とする日中戦争がはじまり、全面戦争に突入する前に日本軍は「野戦酒保規程」を改正して慰安所を造るための法整備を行った[34]1937年9月29日の陸達第48号「野戦酒保規程改正」には「必要ナル慰安施設ヲナスコトヲ得」と書かれており[35]、慰安所は軍の後方施設として兵站部が管轄することが規定されている[34]

1937年12月の南京戦の後、南京市内の安全区(難民区)の設置に関わり、安全区内の金陵女子文理学院に逃れて来た女性避難民の保護にあたったミニー・ヴォートリンの日記には、強姦事件の被害者からの聞き取り内容や、強姦目的で金陵女子文理学院の敷地内に侵入した日本兵とのやりとりで「(日本兵を)追い払った、(日本兵に)女性難民が拉致された、構内で強姦に及んだ兵士(日本兵)を制止した、など」が記録されている[36]。また1937年12月24日の日記には、日本軍の某師団の高級軍事顧問の訪問を受け、避難民1万人の中から売春婦100人を選別させてもらいたいという要求に対して、以後女性を連行しないことを条件に選別を許し、日本軍が21名を連れて行ったこと、日本軍側は、兵士が利用するための正規の慰安所を開設すれば強姦被害が減ると考えている、と説明したことが記録されている[37]

日本軍は1937年末から大量の軍慰安所を設置し始めた[38]。飯島守上海派遣軍参謀長の12月11日の日記には、中支方面軍から慰安所設置の指示が来た事が書かれている[39]。上村利通上海派遣軍参謀副長も、軍の不法行為が激しいので「南京慰安所の開設において第二課案を審議す」(28日)と書いている[40]。現地軍最高司令部であった中支那方面軍から指示が飛び、取り急ぎ各軍が南京攻略後の駐留地で憲兵に指示して慰安婦を集めさせ慰安所を開設した[41][42]。内地や朝鮮半島から呼び寄せた記録もある[43]1937年12月21日の在上海日本総領事館警察署長が「皇軍将兵慰安婦女渡来ニツキ便宜供与方依頼ノ件」を出し、前線での慰安所設置が報告された[34]

陸軍が視察を依頼した精神科医早尾乕雄の論文である『戦場心理の研究』[44][45] によれば1938年の上海では強姦や輪姦が頻発し、南京では「皇軍に強姦されたら、幸運に思え」と怒鳴った隊長がいたと報告している[46][47]。こうした強姦の多発により、慰安所の設置を急いだことが『飯沼守上海派遣軍参謀長の日記』[48]『上村利通上海派遣軍参謀副長の日記』[49]『北支那参謀長通牒』などの史料から分かる[50]。また小川関治郎の陣中日記の1937年12月21日条には「尚当会報ニテ聞ク 湖州ニハ兵ノ慰安設備モ出来開設当時非常ノ繁盛ヲ為スト 支那女十数人ナルガ漸次増加セント憲兵ニテ準備ニ忙シト」との記述が見られる[51]

慰安所は設置する軍司令官レベルからは主に強姦対策のためと説明されるが[52]、設置しても強姦事件が後を絶たないという軍関係者の報告も残されている[53][54][55]。その一方で、後にシンガポールの初代首相となったリー・クアンユーは、南京占領時に起きたようなことが起きるのではないかと恐れていたものの、シンガポール占領時には南京で起きたような強姦事件は郊外で幾らか起きた以外はあまり発生せず、その理由は慰安所の存在のためではないかとしている。ただし、中国本土では慰安所があってもレイプ事件は発生しており、また、南京では松井大将が軍の勝手な市中への侵入を禁じていたにもかかわらず、侵攻してきた各軍が勝手に市中に入っていったことに対して、シンガポールでは禁令がよく守られ、また、入市が認められた軍も元々が軍法をよく心得て、その取締りを主とする憲兵隊を主体とする部隊であったという差異があり[56]、これらについてはリーは知らなかったとみえ、触れていない。リーは、当時はこれらの女性が強制的に連れて来られたことを自身は知らなかったとして、慰安所の設置そのものについては、このような問題について日本軍が現実的な処理の仕方をすると思ったと、どこまで皮肉か本気か分からない書き方で述べている[57]:40

問題を起す内地の慰安婦斡旋業者[編集]

1937年から翌38年にかけて内地の売春斡旋業者の取り締まりに関する通達等が多数出された。1937年(昭和12年)8月31日には外務次官通牒「不良分子ノ渡支ニ関スル件」が出され、斡旋業者の取り締まりについての注意命令が出された[35]

  • 1938年1月19日付群馬県知事発内務大臣・陸軍大臣宛「上海派遣軍内陸軍慰安所ニ於ケル酌婦募集ニ関スル件」 と同年1月25日付高知県知事発内務大臣宛「支那渡航婦女募集取締ニ関スル件」、同日付山形県知事発内務大臣・陸軍大臣宛「北支派遣軍慰安酌婦募集ニ関スル件」[35] などでは、警察から「皇軍ノ威信ヲ失墜スルコト甚タシキモノ」とされた神戸の貸座敷業者大内の言葉として、「上海での戦闘も一段落ついて駐屯の体制となったため、将兵が現地での中国人売春婦と遊んで性病が蔓延しつつあるので3,000人を募集した」とある[35]。業者大内によれば、契約は二年、前借金は500円から1,000円まで、年齢は16歳から30歳迄としている[34]
  • 1938年2月7日付和歌山県知事内務省警保局長宛「時局利用婦女誘拐被疑事件ニ関スル件」によると、1938年1月6日、和歌山田辺で、支那(中国)で慰安婦に就職しないかと勧誘した挙動不審の男らが誘拐容疑で逮捕された。男らは軍の命令で募集していると称していたので、和歌山県刑事課長は長崎県外事警察課に問い合わせ、その回答である38年1月20日付文書には「皇軍将兵慰安婦が渡来するので便宜供与をしてください」という依頼文が添付されている[35]。この公文「皇軍将兵慰安婦女渡来ニツキ便宜供与方依頼ノ件」(在上海総領事館警察署発長崎県水上警察署宛、1937年12月21日付)には、「稼業婦女(酌婦)募集ノ為本邦内地並ニ朝鮮方面ニ旅行中ノモノアリ」とも記録されている[35]
  • 1938年2月14日には茨城県知事から内務大臣・陸軍大臣宛「上海派遣軍内陸軍慰安所ニ於ケル酌婦募集ニ関スル件」、翌2月15日には宮城県知事発内務大臣宛でも同名の通達がなされている[35]
慰安婦として内地から中国へ渡航する婦女の取扱[編集]

1938年2月18日に起案され、2月23日に内務省警保局長より各庁府県長官に宛てて「支那渡航婦女の取扱に関する件」(内務省発警第5号)が通達された[34][35][58]。この通達では内地(植民地以外の日本国内)から中国に渡航させる慰安婦は、満21歳以上の現役の娼妓や醜業を営む女性に限定し、身分証明書の発行の際には、婦女売買または誘拐などがないかよく注意することや、募集に際し軍の名を騙ったり、虚偽や誇大な広告宣伝をする者を厳重に取り締まるよう命じている。

内地での慰安婦募集上の注意[編集]

1938年(昭和13年)3月4日、「支那渡航婦女の取扱に関する件」に応じて陸軍省 兵務局 兵務課はに「軍慰安所従業婦等募集に関する件」(陸支密第745号)を発令した。この通達は、北京近郊で慰安所を設置するために内地(植民地以外の日本国内)で慰安婦を募集した者が、軍の名義を利用したり、誘拐のような方法で集め警察に検挙取締りを受けたため、今後は派遣軍が募集する者の人選を適切にし、軍の威信を保ち社会問題を引き起こさないよう依頼したものである。

日本軍から内地への慰安婦の要請[編集]

1938年11月4日には南支(南部中国)派遣軍古荘幹郎部隊参謀陸軍航空兵少佐 久門有文陸軍省徴募課長より内務省に対して慰安婦要員約400名と、身元が確かで慰安所経営ができる引率者(雇い主)の要請があり[59][60]支那渡航婦女に関する件伺)、内務省警保局(現在の警察庁に相当)はこの要請に応じて大阪、京都、兵庫、福岡、山口の各知事宛に計400名を割り当て、極秘扱いで華南に渡航させるよう命じた(南支方面渡航婦女の取り扱いに関する件[60][61][62]

朝鮮南部で多発する少女誘拐事件[編集]

朝鮮半島で跋扈していた悪徳業者によって100名を超える婦女子が売り飛ばされた事件の捜査を報じる1939年8月31日付東亜日報

1932年から1939年にかけて、朝鮮南部では売春斡旋業者が10代の少女らに路上で恐喝を行ったり嘘をついて勧誘したり、誘拐する事件が頻発し、満州や中国などに養女などの名目で売却されていた。

当時の少女誘拐事件および人身売買については、警察の発表などを受けて朝鮮の新聞東亜日報毎日新報(毎日申報。現・ソウル新聞)、時代日報[26]中外日報[26] で報道されている。朝鮮総督府統計年報によると、略取・誘拐での検挙数は1935年は朝鮮人2,482人・日本人24人[63]、1938年は朝鮮人1,699人・日本人10人[64]、1940年は朝鮮人1,464人・日本人16人[65] となっている。

朝鮮総督府警察による中国への養女取引禁止[編集]

朝鮮総督府警察はたびたび悪質な少女斡旋業者を逮捕し、1939年5月には、中国への幼女供与、中国人による朝鮮人養女を引き取り、また養育することを禁止した[66]

しかしその後も誘拐事件は頻発し、「処女貿易」を行なっていた「誘引魔」が逮捕されたとの報道(東亜日報、1939年8月5日)や、釜山の斡旋業者(特招会業者)による誘拐被害者の女性が100名を超えていたとの報道(東亜日報、1939年8月31日)があった[67][68]。また、河允明に続いて逮捕されたペ・シャンオンは、1935年から1939年にかけて、約100人の農村女性を満州に、150余人を北支(北部中国)に売却していた[69]。また下級役人が戸籍偽造に協力していた汚職も発覚した[69]

支那事変の経験より観たる軍紀振作対策[編集]

1940年9月19日、『支那事変の経験より観たる軍紀振作対策』を各部隊に配布[70]。この中で兵舎の設備改善と慰安の諸施設を求めて、特に性的慰安所は「志気の振興、軍紀の維持、犯罪及び性病の予防等に影響する」と説いている[71]

「事変勃発以来の実情に徴するに、赫々たる武勲の反面に略奪、強姦、放火俘虜惨殺等、皇軍たるの本質に反する幾多の犯行を生じ、為に聖戦に対する内外の嫌悪反感を招来し、聖戦目的の達成を困難ならしめあるは遺憾とするところなり」

「犯罪非行生起の状況を観察するに、戦闘行動直後に多発するを認む」
「事変地においては特に環境を整理し、慰安施設 に関し周到なる考慮を払い、殺伐なる感情及び劣情を緩和抑制することに留意するを要す。」

「特に性的慰安所より受くる兵の精神的影響は最も率直深刻にして、之が指導監督の適否は、志気の振興、軍紀の維持、犯罪及び性病の 予防等に影響するに大ならざるを思わざるべからず。」–『支那事変の経験より観たる軍紀振作対策』

吉見義明はこの資料で軍は慰安所の役割を積極的に認めていると言う[72]

太平洋戦争[編集]

1941年12月8日、日本軍による真珠湾攻撃太平洋戦争勃発。

  • 1941年刊行(推定)清水一郎陸軍主計少佐編著『初級作戦給養百題』(陸軍主計団記事発行部『陸軍主計団記事』第三七八号附録)第一章総説に、師団規模の部隊が作戦する際に経理将校が担当する15項目の「作戦給養業務」が解説され、「其他」項目の解説に以下の任務が列挙されている[73]

1 酒保ノ開設
2 慰安所ノ設置、慰問団ノ招致、演藝會ノ開催
3 恤兵品ノ補給及分配
4 商人ノ監視

  • 1942年9月3日陸軍省課長会報で倉本敬次郎恩賞課長は「将校以下の慰安施設を次の通り作りたり」としてその結果を報告した。それによると、設置された軍慰安所は、華北100、華中140、華南40、南方100、南海10、樺太10、計400ヶ所であった。

日本の内地においては1941年の灯火管制下の治安維持のために戦時犯罪処罰ノ特例ニ関スル法律を制定し、性犯罪の厳罰化が図られた[74]。これは一説には、妻や娘、姉・妹等の家族を置いて国外に出征する兵士らの士気維持のためだったともいわれる。

オランダ領東インド(インドネシア)で日本軍統治時代、敵性の疑いがかけられたオランダ系住民が多数、収容所に入れられたが、その収容者らが女性を慰安婦として出すよう要求された。拒否し抜いた収容所もあったものの、幾つかの収容所は女性を出した。これは食糧も十分に提供されず、飢餓的状況にあった収容所もあって、生き延びるために不本意ながら応じた女性がいたためとも言われる[75]。インドネシアについては、戦後も長らく欧米人被害を中心に語られることが多く、それに比べれば、現地住民に対する慰安婦狩りや現地に連れてこられた朝鮮人慰安婦の被害については取上げられる事は少ない。しかし、作家プラムディア(後のマグサイサイ賞受賞作家)がスハルト政権下でブル島に政治犯として流刑にされたことをきっかけに、その島で日本軍がかつて外部のジャワ島から少女ら(十代半ばだったとされる)を留学させると称して連れ出し、ブル島に監禁、慰安婦とし、敗戦後は少女たちを島に置き去りにしたまま去っていたことを知って調査報告した著作[76]や、山田盟子の著作等がある。

朝鮮における「挺身隊」と「慰安婦」の混同と流言[編集]

「挺身隊」とは「女子勤労挺身隊」のことで、主に工場などでの労働に従事する女性を指し、「慰安婦」とは全く異なる。太平洋戦争末期の1944年8月、労働力が逼迫する中で日本内地において日本人女性を工場などへ強制動員する「女子挺身勤労令」が出され、12歳から40歳までの未婚女子が対象となった[77]。同時に学徒勤労令も出され、中等学校二年以上の学徒も軍需工場などで勤労した[78]

朝鮮半島の女子には女子挺身勤労令は発令されなかったが[78]、朝鮮での強制性のない官斡旋の女子挺身隊が内地の工場に向かった事例もあったため、挺身隊と慰安婦が混同され、「挺身隊に動員されると慰安婦にされる」との流言デマ)が流布した[79]。デマによってパニック状態[78] になった朝鮮の未婚女性や親は、学校を中退させたり、結婚することで徴用を逃れようとした[80]。戦後、慰安婦問題の活動を行う韓国挺身隊問題対策協議会初代代表の尹貞玉1943年4月に入学した女学校を父親の忠告に従って同年9月に退学している[80]

1944年6月27日の内務省の文書では、未婚女子の挺身隊を慰安婦とするようなデマについて「荒唐無稽なる流言」「悪質な流言」としている。当時の日本政府はそうしたデマを民族主義者による反日謀略とみなしていた可能性も指摘されている[80]

日本内地へ動員された女子挺身隊の総数は4,000人[81] から10,000人[82] と推計されているが詳しい人数は分かっていない。こうしたデマは、慰安婦の斡旋業者が挺身隊名目で慰安婦を集めていたのも原因しており、挺身隊=慰安婦という朝鮮での混同は戦後になっても見られる。

台湾での慰安婦[編集]

台湾軍が南方軍の求めに応じて「慰安婦」50人を選定し、その渡航許可を陸軍大臣に求めた公文書「台電 第602号」がある[要出典][83]

米軍と慰安婦[編集]

アメリカ軍は1941年米陸軍サーキュラー170号規定において、「兵士と売春婦との接触はいかなる場合でも禁止」されたが、実際には買春は黙認されており[84]、太平洋戦線ではビルマ方面で日本軍の慰安所を参考に売春婦をインドで集め慰安所を設置していた。しかし慰安所について米国国内で論争が発生し、1944年9月には、売春宿(慰安所)の廃止が決定され[84]、1945年4月24日付で「海軍作戦方面における売春について」との通達が米国陸軍高級副官名で出され、同年9月1日に発令された。

朝鮮半島においては、連合軍による軍政が敷かれ慰安所、慰安婦ともにアメリカ軍に引き継がれた[86][87]

終戦直後[編集]

終戦後のソ連軍による強姦や暴行に対して、娘を守るために自ら「慰安婦人会[88]」、また「戦勝国民化」した朝鮮人が行った強姦や暴行への対策としても同様に「慰安隊」が海州市で結成されたという証言がある[89]

ソ連軍・朝鮮保安隊などによる戦時性暴力と慰安婦[編集]

ソ連ロシア)では慰安所は設置されていないが強姦が黙認された[90]。日本領となっていた満州朝鮮半島に進軍してきたソ連兵は、日本人女性の強姦行為を各地で繰り返し[91]、満洲の吉林省 敦化ではソ連軍が日本の工場の独身寮に約170名の日本人女性を監禁し強姦している(敦化事件)。大古洞開拓団三江省 通河県)ではソ連軍による慰安婦提供の要請を受けて2名の志願慰安婦を提供した事例がある[92] ほか、満州開拓団にソ連軍が進駐した際には兵士の妻でなく単身女性が慰安婦として提供された黒川開拓団や郡上村開拓団の例がある[93]。(引揚者#ソ連軍占領下地域も参照)

また、朝鮮人(朝鮮保安隊)も朝鮮半島の吉州郡端川市などでソ連兵とともに非戦闘員の日本女性引揚者への集団強姦行為をおこない、強姦後に虐殺するケースもあった[91]。このほか、中国共産党軍朝鮮人民義勇軍による日本人虐殺事件(通化事件)では女性は強姦され、引揚列車に乗り込んできた中国共産党軍によって拉致された女性もいた[94]

強姦により妊娠した引揚者の女性を治療した福岡県二日市保養所の1946年(昭和21年)の記録では、相手の男性は朝鮮人28人、ソ連人8人、中国人6人、アメリカ人3人、台湾人・フィリピン人各1人であり、場所は朝鮮半島が38件と最も多く、満州4件、北支3件であった[95]。1947年に閉鎖されるまで二日市保養所では4500件の中絶手術が行われた[96]ヨーコ・カワシマ・ワトキンズの自伝『竹林はるか遠く-日本人少女ヨーコの戦争体験記』でもソ連軍や朝鮮共産党軍に日本の市民が朝鮮半島において暴行・強姦の被害にあったことが記録されている[97]

戦後[編集]

占領軍(米軍)と慰安婦[編集]
特殊慰安施設協会(RAA)の設置[編集]

戦後日本内地への占領軍(米軍)による日本の一般女性に対する強姦事件が予測された為、日本政府は「日本女性の貞操を守る犠牲として愛国心のある女性」を募集し、連合軍向けの慰安所(特殊慰安施設協会)を設立し、総計55,000人が集まった[98]

占領軍の性対策については警視庁1945年8月15日の敗戦直後から検討し、8月22日には連合軍の新聞記者から「日本にそういう施設があることと思い、大いに期待している」との情報が入った。また佐官級の兵士が東京丸の内警察署に来て、「女を世話しろ」ということもあった。8月17日に成立した東久邇内閣国務大臣 近衛文麿警視庁総監 坂信弥に「日本の娘を守ってくれ」と請願したため、坂信弥は一般婦女を守るための「防波堤」としての連合軍兵士専用の慰安所の設営を企画し、翌日の8月18日には橋本政実 内務省警保局長による「外国軍駐屯地に於る慰安施設について」との通達が出された。作家の早川紀代によれば、当時の慰安所は東京、広島、静岡、兵庫県、山形県、秋田県、横浜、愛知県、大阪、岩手県などに設置された。また右翼団体国粋同盟総裁 笹川良一)が連合軍慰安所アメリカン倶楽部を9月18日に開業している。こうした慰安所は公式には特殊慰安施設協会と称され、英語ではRecreation and Amusement Association(レクリエーション及び娯楽協会, RAA)と表された。

進駐軍の性犯罪[編集]

特殊慰安施設協会1945年8月22日に設置されたが、30日に上陸した進駐軍横須賀横浜をはじめ、民家に侵入し日本人女性を強姦する事件が多発した[103][104]。28日、9月2日開業予定の小町園慰安所には機関銃で武装したアメリカ軍兵士達が乗り込みすべての慰安婦たちを強姦した[105]。横浜では、100名を超える武装したアメリカ兵が開業前日の慰安所に乗り込み慰安婦14名を輪姦した[105]。9月1日には野毛山公園で日本女性が27人の米兵に集団強姦された[103]。5日には神奈川県の女子高校が休校した[103][106]。19日にGHQプレスコードを発令して以後は連合軍を批判的に扱う記事は新聞で報道されなくなった[103]武蔵野市では小学生が集団強姦され、東京都大田区 大森では病院に2 – 300人の米兵が侵入し、妊婦や看護婦らが強姦された[103][107]。これらのアメリカ軍による集団強姦事件はダグラス・マッカーサー元帥ロバート・アイケルバーガー将軍も把握しており[108]、アメリカ軍は強姦から女性を守ろうと設立された自警団に対しては戦闘車両で鎮圧し自警団幹部らを長期間にわたって刑務所に監禁した[108]。進駐軍相手の日本人娼婦(街娼)は「パンパン」などと呼ばれていた。占領直後の性的暴行や強姦の件数については確定していないが、藤目ゆきによれば上陸後一ヶ月だけでも最低3500人以上の女性が連合軍兵士によって被害をうけ、その後も1947年に283人、1948年に265人、1949年に312人の被害届けが確認されているがこれらは氷山の一角であり、藤目は占領とは「日本人女性に対する米軍の性的蹂躙の始まり」でもあったと述べている[109]

連合国軍最高司令官総司令部(GHQ)の軍医総監による慰安婦斡旋の要請[編集]

占領軍(米軍)は特殊慰安施設協会だけでは満足できずに、GHQ軍医総監と公衆衛生福祉局長サムス大佐1945年9月28日に、東京都衛生局防疫課長与謝野光に対して、都内で焼け残った花街5カ所と売春街17カ所に触れながら、占領軍用の女性を世話してくれと要求した[110][111]。また、与謝野光は将校、白人兵士、黒人兵士用の仕分けの相談も応じた[111][112]。またGHQは「都知事の責任において進駐軍の兵隊を性病にかからせてはいけない」と検診を命令し、与謝野はこれを受けて東京都令第一号と警視庁令第一号で性病予防規則を制定し、週一回の強制検診を実施した[111]

1945年12月時点で在日連合軍は43万287人駐屯していた。

朝鮮戦争[編集]

1946年2月14日、在朝鮮アメリカ陸軍司令部軍政庁が南朝鮮(現韓国)での公娼制を廃止[114]

アメリカの支援を受けて1948年8月15日に建国された大韓民国では、朝鮮戦争以降、韓国政府が韓国軍・米軍向けの「特殊慰安隊」を設立した[115][116][117]

朝鮮戦争では韓国人女性が慰安婦として国の政策により集められる(韓国軍慰安婦)とともに、日本人慰安婦も在日米軍基地周辺、また朝鮮半島へも日本人慰安婦が連れて行かれたこともあった[118][119]

サンフランシスコ講和条約と在日米軍[編集]

1951年9月8日に連合国諸国とサンフランシスコ講和条約を締結し、関係諸国との請求権問題を解決し[120]、また同時に在日米軍の駐留が容認された[119]

その後も在日米軍による犯罪は続き、1952年5月から1953年6月の警察資料でも殺人8、過失致死435、強姦51,暴行704など合計4476件の犯罪が報告されており、1954年2月には京都府宇治市大久保小学校の四年生の女子児童が強姦されたあとに陰部から肛門まで刃物で引き裂かれる事件が発生し、ほかにも4歳の幼児が強姦され、危篤状態になった事件や、突然狙撃されて死亡した事件などが多発した[119]。1952年の奈良の慰安施設RRセンターでは2500名の慰安婦がいた[119]

日本の運動側には「醜業婦」観があり、たとえばキリスト教女子青年会の女性牧師 植村環は『婦人公論』(1952年5月号)で「アメリカの寛大な統治を悦び、感謝しており」とする一方で慰安婦たち「卑しい業を廃めさせ」るよう要求したり、「パンパン」を「大方は積極的に外人を追いかけて歩き、ダニのように食いついて離れぬ種類の婦人」と述べたり、「あんなに悪性のパンパンに対しては、白人の方だって、あの位の乱暴は働きたくなりますさ」などと語るなど[121]売春問題を買う男ではなく売る女性の方を問題としていた[122]

詳細については、次の URL をご覧ください。……

Comfort stations were established first in Shanghai in 1932, then in Japan, China,  the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaya, Thailand, Burma, East New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, French Indochina, and other regions.

During the early twentieth century, Japan gradually established its power and control over East Asia, including Taiwan (colonized in 1895), Korea (made a protectorate of Japan in 1905 and annexed in 1910), and Manchuria (a puppet government set up in 1932). Beginning with the outbreak of the Second Sino–Japanese War (1937), Asia was constantly at war, a state of affairs that later became part of World War II. During the period of constant warfare from the early 1930s to 1945, the Japanese Imperial Army implemented and maintained the comfort women system. That the Japanese military set up and controlled the system is clearly evidenced by official Japanese military records and personal memoirs. For example, Okabe Naosaburō, a senior staff officer in the Shanghai Expeditionary Force, wrote the following in his diary, related to establishing a comfort station in the Shangai area in 1932:

Recently, soldiers have been prowling around everywhere looking for women, and I often heard obscene stories [about their behavior]. As long as conditions are peaceful and the army is not engaged in fighting, these incidents are difficult to prevent. Rather, we should recognize that we can actively provide facilities. I have considered many policy options for resolving the troops’ sexual problems and have set to work on realizing that goal. Lieutenant Cononel Nagami [Toshinori] will bear primary responsibility in this matter.3

The document indicates that senior staff officers of each army typically issued orders to establish comfort stations, and staff officers of subordinate units made a plan and carried it out.4 Comfort stations were to be used exclusively for troops and officers. The Japanese military used several justifications for creating the system: to boost army morale; to control the behavior of the soldiers; to contain venereal diseases among the troops; and to prevent rapes by Japanese soldiers, thus avoiding the rise of hostility among the inhabitants of occupied areas.5

Comfort stations were established first in Shanghai in 1932, then in Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaya, Thailand, Burma, East New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, French Indochina, and other regions. Comfort stations were established wherever the Japanese troops went.6

The Story of Yong Soo Lee

Comfort stations at the early stage were filled with prostitutes who voluntarily came from Japan. However, as the Japanese army continued military expansion from the late 1930s, it turned to the local population in occupied areas, such as Korea, Taiwan, and China, to coerce women into serving sexually in these stations.

In 1938, the Japanese military began to utilize Japanese or local brokers to “recruit” women, particularly in Korea and Taiwan. It was common that those agents or their subcontractors would go from one city to another, procuring forty to fifty young girls at once. Once they secured enough women, they would send them to China and other war zones. The most common way to “recruit” young girls in Korea was deceit, that is, making false promises of employment as factory workers, nurses, laundry workers, or kitchen helpers in Japan or other Japanese-occupied territories. Typically, daughters of poor peasant families would be deceived by this “recruiting” and would not know the real nature of the work until they were taken into a comfort station.7

Toward the end of the war, the military used the police force to procure women. Many young girls were forcibly taken. We can see how a girl was taken against her will to become a comfort woman in Yong Soo Lee’s story.8 Lee was one of three survivors who testified before the US House of Representatives’ Foreign Relations Committee about violations of their civil liberties by the Japanese government. This testimony resulted in the passage of the nonbinding US House Resolution 121 (2007), urging Japan to accept full responsibility for the actions of its military. The victims’ personal stories from the testimony provide us with a vivid picture of this horrible tragedy.

Lee lived in Taegu, Korea, under Japanese occupation in the early 1940s. Her family was poor, and she received only one year of formal education. She began working in a factory to support her family at the age of thirteen. In the autumn of 1944, when she was sixteen years old, she and a friend were taken to Taiwan, where they were forced to work as sexual slaves for the Japanese military. She remembers that a Japanese man came to her home and called her to come out. Without knowing where she was going or why, she was taken away by Japanese soldiers. She met three other girls, and they were all put on a train. They went to Kyôngju first, then to P’yôngan Province in northern Korea. During the trip, Japanese soldiers hit and kicked them, and she sometimes lost consciousness. On a ship and again a train, she was taken to Dalian, Shanghai, and finally Taiwan. Various official documents and testimony verified that comfort women were transported by army cargo ships from Japan and Korea to many places in the Asia–Pacific region. It implies that Japan’s Ministry of War was directly involved in transporting those women to war zones, since it was impossible to use any Japanese military ships without the ministry’s permission. 9

詳細については、次の URL をご覧ください。……

ユーザーがトピックに関連して検索するキーワード comfort women japan comfort women japan

women, politics, army, us, women rights, president obama, economy, obama, north america, government politics, comfort women, korea, south korea, japan, world war ii, wwii, korean comfort women

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結論として、日本のエンタメニュースは興味深くエキサイティングな話題です。日本の文化やエンターテインメント業界について学ぶことはたくさんあります。日本のエンタメニュースはとても面白いです。新鮮でわくわくする情報が満載です。ぜひ、この本を読んで、この国とその文化についてもっと学んでください。この記事が有益で役立つことを願っています。読んでくれてありがとう!

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