私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
washoku, 2014-10-01, 桂剥きの剥き方～大根つまの作り方～寿司屋の板長が教えるSTEP1桂剥きの剥き方、作り方, その他の料理の作り方、レシピはチャンネル登録（無料）をすると検索しやすいですよ＾＾
STEP2けんの切り方打ち方桂剥きの剥き方や胡瓜つま等はチャンネルから検索ください＾＾, HOW TO MAKE SUSHI & WASHOKU (Japanese sushi chef of professional)
英語版（English）:The Washoku Way -Japan’s Nuanced Approach to Food-
フランス語（French）:La voie du Washoku -La subtile approche japonaise de la nourriture-
イタリア語（Italian）:L’arte del Washoku -Le mille sfumature della cucina giapponese-
What is Washoku 和食?
Another name for Japanese cuisine is “Washoku” 和食 (和食 – 和 meaning ‘Japan’ or ‘harmony,’ 食 meaning ‘food’ or ‘to eat’). As implied in the Chinese characters, Washoku harmoniously blends the ingredients for a nutritious and beautifully presented meal.
The term actually is a recent creation from the Meiji period (1868-1912), the beginning of Japan’s modernization and industrialization from the feudal era. Until then, contact with foreign countries was severely restricted under the Tokugawa Shogunate. As Japan opened its borders, an influx of new cultures (and food!) arrived from European nations and the U.S.
The consumption of beef and pork, once considered taboo by Buddhist practice, quickly spread among the Japanese and fusion dishes such as Nikujaga (肉じゃが), Curry (カレー), Tonkatsu (トンカツ), and Croquette (コロッケ) were born. To distinguish traditional Japanese cuisine from the exotic western cuisine (西洋料理) and western influenced Japanese cuisine called Yoshoku (洋食), the term Washoku was cooked up.
Geography and Cuisine
via Lonely Planet
Looking at a map of Japan, it’s easy to imagine how Japan’s geography influences the nation’s cuisine. The archipelago of the country stretches over 3,500 islands from the snowy northern island of Hokkaido down to subtropical Okinawa. With over 18,000 miles of coastline and 70 percent of the country covered by mountainous terrain, the cuisine features the plentiful abundance from the “fruit of the sea” (海の幸) and “fruit of the mountains” (山の幸).
Image by Kirishima city Agricultural products
Four distinct seasons also play a key role in Japanese dishes. While seasons are not a unique trait in itself, the seasonal cycle is deeply infused in Japanese culture, displayed greatly in traditional arts, poetry, dress attire, and cuisine. This respect for nature’s cycle can be seen in Shun (旬) (meaning “season”), the time of year when produce reaches its peak flavor and nutritional value.
This seasonal awareness in the cuisine is one of the defining aspects of Washoku.
Examples are plump green peas and hamaguri clams in the spring, spicy shishito peppers and Japanese whiting in the summer, woody matsutake mushrooms and pike eel in the fall, and herbal shungiku greens and buri yellowtail in the winter.
Rice has its shun as well; the newly harvested rice (新米) is collected beginning in the early fall, and prized for its characteristic moist and tender texture.
You may also see seasonal motifs painted on plates and bowls, or a little sprig of tender green leaves or an vivid red maple leaf adding a splash of color to the dish.
Washoku: UNESCO Designation
In 2013, UNESCO designated Washoku on their list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Washoku was applauded for its “social practice based on a set of skills, knowledge, practice, and traditions related to the production, processing, preparation and consumption of food…[and] respect for nature that is closely related to the sustainable use of natural resources.” (UNESCO). Japanese Washoku joined other famous cuisines on the UNESCO’s list including French cuisine, traditional Mexican cuisine, and the Mediterranean diet.
While the UNESCO designation recognizes the importance of the history of Japanese cuisine, it doesn’t hold it back from evolving. Similar to how Yoshoku became a part of Washoku, the Japanese cuisine and the Japanese appetite are continuously changing and integrating new cuisines. With the boom of Japanese cuisine abroad, like teppanyaki, sushi, ramen, and matcha, and the steady flow of incoming tourists seeking a delicious meal and experience, it’s exciting to think what Japanese cuisine will look and taste like, in the near future.
Experience Washoku in style in Japan
You may hear about different styles of multi-course Japanese meals – ending with Ryori (料理) – which translates to cooking/cookery/cuisine. If you’re seeking a fancy washoku meal during your travels in Japan, try out one (or more!) of the following:
- Shojin Ryori 精進料理 – Popularized by Zen Buddhism, Shojin Ryori refers to temple food that is entirely vegan (although some temples allow milk products).
- Cha-Kaiseki Ryori (also referred to as Kaiseki Ryori) 茶懐石料理 – A meal served before a Japanese tea ceremony. Originally, Cha-Kaiseki Ryori was a frugal meal to satisfy hunger pangs before the ceremony.
- Kaiseki Ryori 会席料理 – Same pronunciation as above, but different Chinese characters. Kaiseki Ryori refers to a meal traditionally served at ceremonial banquets. There are Kaiseki specialized restaurants, which you can read more about on JOC from Nami’s Kaiseki experience in Kyoto and Hida Takayama.
- Honzen Ryori 本膳料理 – A formalized meal from court aristocracy, served on legged trays. Although rarer these days – replaced by tables and chairs – there are some places that still offer a true Honzen Ryori experience.
Learn more about Washoku
The world of Washoku is so vast that a single post cannot do it justice! In my corner of JOC, I will be sharing various components of Washoku such as bento culture, celebratory cuisines, regional dishes, and the cooking style of Ichijiru Sansai (一汁三菜). So please stay tuned!
For those curious to read more about Washoku, I recommend the following books.
- Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art by Shizuo Tsuji
- Introduction to Japanese Cuisine: Nature, History and Culture by the Japanese Culinary Academy
- Japanese Farm Food by Nancy Singleton Hachisu
- Washoku: Recipes from the Japanese Home Kitchen by Elizabeth Andoh
Do you have any recommendations that sparked your curiosity? Please share in the comment box below!
Meet the Author
Kayoko Hirata Paku
Kayoko is a freelance food writer, translator, and full-time bagel person. She grew up in Japan and the U.S. and has been living in her hometown of Tokyo upon graduating from college. She’s been with the JOC team since 2016 while working at the Japanese recipe company Cookpad, then quit to study at Hattori Nutrition College for formal education in food and cooking. While she doesn’t work in the kitchens nowadays, she’s happier reading about Japanese food culture and failing to tend to her sough dough starter. She resides in Tokyo with her PB-addicted husband, a very hungry toddler, and many half-dead plants.
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全国「和食」連絡会議 第８回交流会「1204和食セッション」～次代に繋ぐ和食の集い～ ご案内
９月９日 重陽の節供 ちょうようのせっく
7月2日 半夏生 はんげしょう
マルコメお味噌ができるまで ～ナビゲーター マルコメ君～【子供向け】
11月22日 小雪 しょうせつ
８月７日 立秋 りっしゅう
Washoku Japan News
全国「和食」連絡会議 第８回交流会「1204和食セッション」～次代に繋ぐ和食の集い～ ご案内
11月24日は「和食の日」 「我が家の和食 写真投稿キャンペーン」ご案内
文化庁 文化芸術振興助成 映画「土を喰らう十二ヵ月」ご案内
花園大学 社会福祉学部 児童福祉学科 出前授業報告
文化庁 令和4年度食文化機運醸成事業「100年フード」「食文化ミュージアム」 公募開始のご案内
味の素食の文化センター・人間文化機構共催 食の文化シンポジウム 開催のお知らせ
Washoku Japan News 一覧
Washoku, otherwise known as the food of Japan, is the collective term for the cuisine that originates from this island nation. From the preparation to the presentation, this gastronomic experience is steeped in tradition and offers a surprisingly insightful introduction to Japanese culture and way of life. For its importance to Japanese cultural identity, Washoku was recognized as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2013.
The Kanji for Washoku, 和食, translates literally to “Food of Japan,” ‘wa’ being Japan (also harmony) and ‘shoku’ being food or to eat. Wa is one of the most important values to Japanese culture. Washoku focuses on blending each ingredient harmoniously together to create a memorable experience.
Washoku has deep roots in Japanese history, with cooking and serving techniques dating back over 400 years. While Washoku is extremely traditional, it is also flexible, varying from everyday essentials to multi-course holiday feasts.
The term Washoku came into use during the Meiji period to distinguish Japanese food from the exotic foreign dishes being introduced to Japan from other countries. These new foreign dishes, or yoshoku, 洋食, incorporated Western and Asian influences, blending them with Japanese ingredients. Many of them are now commonly considered standard Japanese fare. Nowadays, a Japanese restaurant menu would be considered incomplete without tempura, omurice, or curry.
Elements of a Washoku Meal While Washoku can be very flexible, almost all meals will come with three essentials: a bowl of steamed rice, a bowl of Konomono (Japanese pickles) and a bowl of Ju, or soup. The ju can be made from tofu, kelp, or vegetables, and flavored with miso or dried miso flakes.
The backbone of traditional Washoku presentation is in Ichiju-sansai, or “one bowl, three dishes.” The three dishes can be almost infinite in their variety, but they will all complement each other.
Ingredients are rich in history and tradition there is an emphasis on variety of ingredients in Washoku. Even one ingredient, such as tofu, can be prepared in such a myriad of ways as to give you endless variations within one dish. Both “fruit of the mountains” (山の幸) and “fruit of the sea” (海の幸) are important resources. Seaweed, kelp and fish are backbone ingredients in many dishes, as well as bamboo shoots and chestnuts.
Generally, oil is only used lightly, except for tempura, and is usually sesame seed or rapeseed based. Deep frying was not introduced to Japan until the Meiji era. This lightness has given Japanese cuisine an international reputation for being healthy.
A focus on Seasonality one of the most important characteristics of Washoku is seasonality. Each ingredient is celebrated for its peak season, or shun (旬) Respect for nature is a key aspect of Shintoism, the native religion of Japan. Washoku is a demonstration of Shinto beliefs.
Presentation is key with Washoku, presentation is almost as important as the actual taste of the food. Great care is taken in decorating food in seasonal patterns. Bowls and plates are carefully chosen to best offset the shape and color of the food. Finish your plate It is expected that you will eat everything. Each ingredient is carefully selected and prepared to pair harmoniously with everything else. It is a faux pas to eat certain dishes and not others.
Itadakimasu! (頂きます)This expression has a few translations into English, but no real equivalent. The most literal version is “I humbly take,” thanking the host for preparing the food. However, it is often understood that it also means taking lives, which is what happens when you eat- in essence, you are thanking the host for providing the meal, but you are also thanking everyone involved- from the farmers tilling the fields, to the plants and animals that were sacrificed to become the meal. Japan’s native religion, Shintoism, instills deep respect
Gochisousama! (ごちそうさまでした)Literally translates to “It has been a feast,” this is said at the end of the meal. Chisou at one point meant “to run around,” and it’s a respectful acknowledgement of the host’s hard work for your meal.
Washoku is a wonderful introduction to Japanese culture, and a delicious education. No visit to Japan can be considered complete without it! Learn more about washoku on our “Flavors of Japan” food tour.
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Culinary Customs Founded on Respect for Nature
When applying for registration in March 2012, the Japanese government gave the following four characteristics as typifying washoku.
1. Diversity and freshness of ingredients, and respect for their inherent flavors
Because of the great latitudinal range of the Japanese archipelago from north to south, the land is characterized by many mountains and proximity to the sea. The richly varied natural environment has meant that each regional Japanese cuisine uses a diversity of ingredients strongly rooted in the terroir. This has been accompanied by the development of cooking methods and utensils that make the most of the ingredients used.
2. An exceptionally well-balanced and healthy diet
The basic composition of the typical Japanese meal, rice with ichijū sansai (“one soup and three side dishes”), is said to have ideal nutritional balance. Because washoku makes skillful use of the umami flavor, very little animal fat is used. This is one cause of the longevity of Japanese people, and it also helps to prevent obesity.
3. An expression of natural beauty and the changing seasons
Another characteristic of washoku is the sense of the beauty of nature and of the changing seasons expressed at the table. By decorating food with blossoms or leaves and by using dishes and other utensils that reflect the changing seasons, the Japanese are able to enjoy each season at mealtimes.
4. Close links with annual events
Japan’s food culture has evolved in a close relationship with New Year’s festivities and similar annual events. By eating at the same table and sharing nature’s bounty, familial and community bonds are strengthened.
Washoku Becomes the Fifth Food-related Heritage
The registration of cultural heritages is aimed at preserving traditions that have no tangible form but are closely related to local history and customs of everyday life, such as traditional performing arts, festivals, and artisanal skills. The system of registering such heritages was instituted under the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, which came into force in April 2006.
The intangible cultural heritage scheme is one of UNESCO’s three major cultural programs. The other two are the World Heritage Site program, which is concerned with natural sites and architectural structures of exceptional significance; and the Memory of the World program, which addresses documentary heritage, such as written documents and paintings. The eighth session of the Intergovernmental Committee registered about 30 items, including Japan’s washoku and South Korea’s kimchi pickle-making tradition. This brings the number of heritage items on the register to 328. With washoku, Japan now has a total of 22 items on the register, among them the nō and kabuki theatrical traditions and the ancient dances of the Ainu people.
Before washoku, four other culinary heritages had been registered: France’s gastronomic meals; the Mediterranean cuisines of Spain, Italy, Greece, and Morocco; traditional Mexican cuisine; and Turkey’s ceremonially prepared dish of wheat and meat—keshkek.
Encouragement to Preserve Culinary Traditions
At one time importance was attached to seasonal produce in washoku, and great attention was paid to ingredients and appropriate culinary methods, but with the ever-increasing trend towards convenience, ingredients no longer receive as much consideration as before.
Another source of change is the introduction of foreign foods and eating habits. As lifestyles have been westernized, young Japanese have increasingly tended to move away from washoku, with the result that it is now in a critical state in Japan.
Registration of an intangible cultural heritage requires that continued measures be taken to preserve it. The Japanese government hopes that the inclusion of washoku on the list will encourage a wider understanding of Japan’s culinary culture by other nations, thus contributing to global cultural diversity. At the same time it is hoped that this recognition by UNESCO will stimulate a movement among the Japanese themselves to preserve and pass on the Japanese culinary culture of washoku to future generations.
(Originally written in Japanese on December 30, 2013)
ユーザーがトピックに関連して検索するキーワード washoku washoku
大根, つま, 剥き方, 桂剥き, 寿司, 刺身, 千切り, Katsuramuki, Radish cutting, vege cutting, itamae