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Video: Oda Nobunaga Character Gameplay Video
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
oda nobunaga, 2018-10-18, Oda Nobunaga Character Gameplay Video, Warriors Orochi 4 – 1 Day Till Launch! Here’s everyone’s favourite hero Oda Nobunaga, check out his move set when deified!
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Early life (1534–1551)
Oda Nobunaga was born on 23 June 1534 in Nagoya, Owari Province, and was the second son of Oda Nobuhide, the head of the powerful Oda clan and a deputy shugo (military governor), and his wife Dota Gozen. Nobunaga is said to have been born in Nagoya Castle, the future seat of the Owari Domain, although this is subject to debate. Nobunaga was given the childhood name of Kippōshi (吉法師), and through his childhood and early teenage years became well-known for his bizarre behavior, receiving the name of Owari no Ōutsuke (尾張の大うつけ, The Fool of Owari). Nobunaga was a clear speaker with a strong presence about him, and was known to run around with other youths from the area, without any regard to his own rank in society. With the introduction of firearms into Japan he became known for his fondness for tanegashima guns.
In 1549, Nobuhide made peace with Saitō Dōsan by arranging a political marriage between his son and heir Nobunaga, and Saitō Dōsan’s daughter, Nōhime. Dōsan therefore became Nobunaga’s father-in-law.
The Oda family in the time of Nobunaga claimed descent from the Taira clan, by Taira no Chikazane, a grandson of Taira no Shigemori (1138–1179).
Taira no Chikazane established himself at Oda (Echizen Province) and took its name. His descendants, senior retainers of the Shiba clan (Seiwa Genji), shugo (governors) of Echizen, Owari and other provinces, followed the latter to Owari Province and received Inuyama Castle in 1435. This castle was built towards 1435, by Shiba Yoshitake who entrusted its safety to the Oda family. The Oda had been shugo-dai (vice-governor) for several generations.
In 1452, after the death of Shiba Yoshitake the vassals of the Shiba, like the Oda in Owari Province and the Asakura clan in Echizen Province, refused the succession of Shiba Yoshitoshi (1430–1490) and supported Shiba Yoshikado (died ca. 1480), and began to divide the large domains of their suzerains among themselves, and had become gradually independent in the domains which had been ceded to them. In 1475, the Oda had occupied the greater portion of Owari Province, but the Shiba would continue to try to regain authority until Shiba Yoshikane (1540–1600), who had to leave Owari.
The other famous castle of the Oda is Kiyosu Castle, built between 1394 and 1427 by Shiba Yoshishige who entrusted the castle to the Oda clan, and named Oda Toshisada vice-governor of the province. Toshisada had four sons. The fourth son, Nobusada, who lived in Katsubata Castle, was the father of Nobuhide and the grandfather of Oda Nobunaga.
Nobuhide took Nagoya Castle in 1525 (it was given to Nobunaga in 1542), and built Furuwatari Castle. Oda Nobutomo held Kiyosu Castle, but he was besieged and killed in 1555 by his nephew Oda Nobunaga who operated from Nagoya Castle. This led to the family being divided into several branches, until the branch led by Oda Nobunaga eclipsed the others and unified its control over Owari.
Then turning to neighboring rivals, it, one by one achieved dominance over the Imagawa, Saitō, Azai, Asakura, Takeda and other clans, until Nobunaga held control over central Japan. However, Nobunaga’s plans for national domination were thwarted when he fell victim to the treachery of his vassal Akechi Mitsuhide who forced Nobunaga into suicide during the Incident at Honnō-ji in the summer of 1582. The Oda remained titular overlords of central Japan for a short time, before being surpassed by the family of one of Nobunaga’s chief generals, Hashiba Hideyoshi.
Though the Oda were effectively eclipsed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi following Nobunaga’s death, it is not often known that the Oda continued to be a presence in Japanese politics. One branch of the family became hatamoto retainers to the Tokugawa shōgun, while other branches became minor daimyō lords. As of the end of the Edo period, these included Tendō Domain (also known as Takahata Domain, Dewa Province, 20,000 koku), Yanagimoto han (Yamato Province, 10,000 koku), Kaiju han (also known as Shibamura han; Yamato Province, 10,000 koku), and Kaibara han (Tanba Province, 20,000 koku).
During the reign of the daimyō Nobutoshi, the Oda of Tendō Domain were signatories to the pact that created the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei.
After Meiji Restoration
After the Meiji Restoration in 1871, the feudal domains were abolished, and all the four houses of the Oda clan were appointed Viscount in the new hereditary peerage (kazoku).
Oda Nobuhide was born in 1510 in Owari Province, the eldest son of Oda Nobusada, the head of the Oda clan and a shugodai (deputy shugo) of the lower Owari area. Nobuhide became head of the Oda clan when Nobusada died in 1538, and became involved in open warfare as he was confronted to the north by Saitō Dōsan, the daimyō of Mino Province, and to the east by Imagawa Yoshimoto, the daimyō of Mikawa, Suruga, and Tōtōmi provinces.
In 1540, Nobuhide attacked and took Anjō castle, which was held by the Matsudaira clan. He was assisted by Mizuno Tadamasa, his son, Oda Nobuhiro, was installed as the lord of the castle.
In 1542 he defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto at First Battle of Azukizaka. Nobuhide managed to hold his own against his opponents, but was never able to fully unite Owari due to constant internal struggles within Oda clan, which prevented him from achieving a complete victory.
In 1547, Nobuhide was defeated at the Battle of Kanōguchi by Saitō Dōsan.
In 1548, Imagawa defeated Nobuhide in the Second Battle of Azukizaka and continued to expand his territory until 1560.
In 1549, Nobuhide made peace with Dōsan by arranging a political marriage between his eldest son, Oda Nobunaga, and Saitō Dōsan daughter, Nōhime. Dōsan supported the marriage which allowed Nobuhide to focus on facing Yoshimoto. In one of his moments of glory, Nobuhide managed to capture Matsudaira Hirotada‘s son and heir, Matsudaira Motoyasu (later known as Tokugawa Ieyasu) as a hostage, to en route Yoshimoto and was thus able to gain some footholds into Mikawa.
When Oda Nobutada and Oda Nobunaga, Hidenobu’s father and grandfather, respectively, were killed during the Incident at Honnō-ji in 1582, there was a dispute as to who would rule the Oda clan between Oda Nobutaka and Oda Nobukatsu, the third and second sons of Nobunaga respectively. Toyotomi Hideyoshi settled the dispute by supporting Hidenobu. Though Hidenobu was only an infant, he was declared the heir.
Hidenobu followed in serving under Ishida Mitsunari during the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Before the battle, he had controlled Gifu Castle, an important element in Mitsunari’s overall plans; however, he ended up losing the castle during the Battle of Gifu Castle against Ikeda Terumasa and Fukushima Masanori.
After losing at Sekigahara, Hidenobu’s vassals committed seppuku in Gifu Castle. The blood-stained floorboards eventually became the ceiling in Sōfuku-ji in Gifu. The ceiling is now called the “blood ceiling” (血天井, chi tenjō). Hidenobu himself died five years after the defeat at Sekigahara.
Oda Nobutada was born in Owari Province (尾張国) around 1557 as the eldest son of Oda Nobunaga (織田信長) (the second son if Oda Nobumasa actually exists). His nanny was Jotoku-In, daughter of Takigawa Kazumasu (滝川一益), who was one of the senior vassals of Oda Nobunaga. There is also a theory that Nobutada was adopted by Nohime. His childhood name was Kimyo-Maru (Kimyo means strange in Japanese). He first called himself Oda Kankuro Nobushige (織田勘九郎信重), and later changed to Nobutada (織田信忠).
During the Eiroku era, the Oda clan came into contact with the Takeda’s territory in Kai Province (甲斐国) through Mino Province (美濃国), and the daughter of Toyama Naokado (遠山直廉), a warlord (国人) in southeast Mino province, became the adopted daughter of Nobunaga and married Takeda Katsuyori (武田勝頼), the eldest son of Takeda Shingen. And then the alliance was formed. According to the Koyo Gunkan, the wife of Katsuyori died in November 1567, and an engagement was established between Nobutada and Takeda Shingen’s sixth daughter, Matsuhime, to reinforce the alliance with the Takeda.
Takeda and Oda continued to maintain a friendly relationship, but during the Eiroku era, the Takeda began invading the territory of Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康), an ally of Oda, in the direction of Mikawa (三河国) and Totomi (遠江国). In the 3rd year of Genki (1572), in response to a call from Yoshiaki Ashikaga, a shogun who had been hostile to Nobunaga, Shingen began invading Oda territory (Operation Seizyo (西上作戦)). The engagement was virtually broken due to Shingen’s death and the marriage of Oda Nobutada was canceled. These events contributed to the destruction of the Ashikaga shogunate in 1573. After that, the Takeda clan tried to improve the relationship with the Oda clan at the end of Katsuyori’s reign, but Nobunaga refused to reconcile.
Nobutada continued to follow Oda Nobunaga, and fought in various places, such as the Ishiyama Hongan-ji War (石山戦争), the Siege of Iwamura Castle (岩村城の戦い) in February 1574, and the attack on Ise Nagashima from July to September 1574. In 1577, Nobutada defeated Matsunaga Hisahide in the Siege of Shigisan. In 1582, he defeated Nishina Morinobu in the Siege of Takato and participated in the Battle of Tenmokuzan against Takeda Katsuyori.
織田信長は、織田弾正忠家の当主・織田信秀の子に生まれ、尾張（愛知県西部）の一地方領主としてその生涯を歩み始めた[注釈 5]。信長は織田弾正忠家の家督を継いだ後、尾張守護代の織田大和守家、織田伊勢守家を滅ぼすとともに、弟の織田信行を排除して、尾張一国の支配を徐々に固めていった[注釈 5]。
永禄3年（1560年）、信長は桶狭間の戦いにおいて駿河の戦国大名・今川義元を撃破した[注釈 5]。そして、三河の領主・徳川家康（松平元康）と同盟を結ぶ[注釈 5]。永禄8年（1565年）、犬山城の織田信清を破ることで尾張の統一を達成した[注釈 5]。
一方で、室町幕府将軍足利義輝が殺害された（永禄の政変）後に、足利将軍家の足利義昭から室町幕府再興の呼びかけを受けており、信長も永禄9年（1566年）には上洛を図ろうとした[注釈 5]。美濃の戦国大名・斉藤氏（一色氏）との対立のためこれは実現しなかったが、永禄10年（1567年）には斎藤氏の駆逐に成功し（稲葉山城の戦い）、尾張・美濃の二カ国を領する戦国大名となった[注釈 5]。そして、改めて幕府再興を志す意を込めて、「天下布武」の印を使用した[注釈 5]。
翌年10月、足利義昭とともに信長は上洛し、三好三人衆などを撃破して、室町幕府の再興を果たす[注釈 5]。信長は、室町幕府との二重政権（連合政権）を築いて、「天下」（五畿内）の静謐を実現することを目指した[注釈 6]。しかし、敵対勢力も多く、元亀元年（1570年）6月、越前の朝倉義景・北近江の浅井長政を姉川の戦いで破ることには成功したものの、三好三人衆や比叡山延暦寺、石山本願寺などに追い詰められる[注釈 5]。同年末に、信長と義昭は一部の敵対勢力と講和を結び、ようやく窮地を脱した[注釈 5]。
元亀2年（1571年）9月、比叡山を焼き討ちする[注釈 5]。しかし、その後も苦しい情勢は続き、三方ヶ原の戦いで織田・徳川連合軍が武田信玄に敗れた後、元亀4年（1573年）、将軍・足利義昭は信長を見限る[注釈 5]。信長は義昭と敵対することとなり、同年中には義昭を京都から追放した（槇島城の戦い）[注釈 5]。
将軍不在のまま中央政権を維持しなければならなくなった信長は、天下人への道を進み始める[注釈 5]。元亀から天正への改元を実現すると、天正元年（1573年）中には浅井長政・朝倉義景・三好義継を攻め、これらの諸勢力を滅ぼすことに成功した[注釈 5]。天正3年（1575年）には、長篠の戦いでの武田氏に対して勝利するとともに、右近衛大将に就任し、室町幕府に代わる新政権の構築に乗り出した[注釈 5]。翌年には安土城の築城も開始している[注釈 5]。しかし、天正5年（1577年）以降、松永久秀、別所長治、荒木村重らが次々と信長に叛いた[注釈 5]。
天正10年（1582年）、甲州征伐を行い、武田勝頼を自害に追いやって武田氏を滅亡させ、東国の大名の多くを自身に従属させた[注釈 5]。同年には信長を太政大臣・関白・征夷大将軍のいずれかに任ずるという構想が持ち上がっている（三職推任）[注釈 5]。その後、信長は長宗我部元親討伐のために四国攻めを決定し、三男・信孝に出兵の準備をさせている[注釈 5]。そして、信長自身も毛利輝元ら毛利氏討伐のため、中国地方攻略に赴く準備を進めていた[注釈 5]。しかし、6月2日、重臣の明智光秀の謀反によって、京の本能寺で自害に追い込まれた（本能寺の変）[注釈 5]。
一般に、信長の性格は、極めて残虐で、また、常人とは異なる感性を持ち、家臣に対して酷薄であったと言われている[注釈 7]。一方、信長は世間の評判を非常に重視し、家臣たちの意見にも耳を傾けていたという異論も存在する[注釈 7]。なお、信長は武芸の鍛錬に励み、趣味として鷹狩り・茶の湯・相撲などを愛好した[注釈 7]。南蛮などの異国に興味を持っていたとも言われる[注釈 7]。
政策面では、信長は室町幕府将軍から「天下」を委任されるという形で自らの政権を築いた[注釈 8]。天皇や朝廷に対しては協調的な姿勢を取っていたという見方が有力となっている[注釈 9]。
とはいえ、やがて信長は勤王家として称賛されるようになり、明治時代には神として祀られている[注釈 10]。第二次世界大戦後には、信長はその政策の新しさから、革新者として評価されるようになった[注釈 11]。しかし、このような革新者としての信長像には疑義が呈されつつあり、近年の歴史学界では信長の評価の見直しが進んでいる[注釈 11]。
The World of the Warring States
Oda Nobunaga was born in 1534, in the middle of the Warring States period (1467–1568). The Ashikaga clan had established the Muromachi shogunate in 1338, but its control in the east of the country slipped when the 1454 assassination of a shogunal deputy at Kamakura sparked decades of regional conflict. In 1467, a dispute over the shogunal succession in Kyoto degenerated into open warfare. The Ōnin War dragged on for 11 years, by the end of which time the shogunate’s power was limited to just the province of Yamashiro (including Kyoto).
In the rest of the country, a number of daimyō established regional power to fill the vacuum. They introduced their own domain laws to control vassals and territory, which often ruled that both parties in any dispute could be punished. Private quarrels between vassals were not permitted, and the daimyō made rulings on any troubles that arose. The aim was to concentrate power in the daimyō, so as to achieve stability in the domain. Other common laws regulated marriage, restricted land sales, and forbade farmers from defaulting on taxes (in the form of rice or barley) or absconding en masse.
Daimyō sought to ascertain the value of their vassals’ land, which was used as a basis for taxation and requirements for military service. They also established hierarchical relationships between certain powerful vassals and lower-class samurai, in which the former were yorioya, or “surrogate parents,” to the latter. At times of war, these could form spear or musket units, which made possible infantry-centered group tactics. Farmers were pressed into service in battle as soldiers or to carry supplies—there was still no clear distinction between warriors and farmers at this time.
Building new rice fields and digging mines also contributed to domain economies. Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine—now a World Heritage Site in Shimane Prefecture—and other silver and gold mines were constructed around this time. Flood control and irrigation projects encouraged agricultural development. For example, one of the leading daimyō Takeda Shingen had a levee built to prevent flooding where two rivers came together in Kai Province.
This was the world into which Nobunaga was born as the oldest legitimate son of Oda Nobuhide in Owari Province (now Aichi Prefecture). He went on to rapidly amass power through his lifetime and almost succeeded in unifying the splintered state. Here I will follow his efforts to establish control over the realm as part of the wider history of Japan in the period.
Takeda Shingen’s seigyū flood control device (left) and the area where they were used today. (Courtesy Kai Board of Education)
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Jeroen Lamers (b. 1967) studied at the University of Leiden (The Netherlands), Cambridge (UK) and Coimbra (Portugal), where he read classical Japanese and 16th-century Portuguese philology. After graduating from Leiden, he became a graduate student at the University of Osaka and later again at Leiden. In 1998 he successfully defended his doctoral dissertation entitled Japonius Tyrannus: A political biography of Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582), which has been adapted for this publication.
Hotei Pub (2001/1/31)
16.56 x 2.87 x 24.79 cm
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