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sea of japan, /sea-of-japan,

Video: U.S. State Department explains “Sea of Japan” is official name in accordance to …

私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。

sea of japan, 2019-05-29, U.S. State Department explains “Sea of Japan” is official name in accordance to …, 美, 트럼프 `일본해` 언급에 “美지명위의 명칭…한일협력 권고”

The U.S. State Department has explained that “Sea of Japan” is the official name Washington uses to describe the body of water between the Korean Peninsula and Japan.
South Korea’s Yonhap News Agency reports that an official from the State Department responded to a written inquiry,… saying the name complies with the U.S. Board on Geographical Naming.
The official also suggested Seoul and Tokyo reach an agreement on the naming
Following President Trump’s mentioning of the “Sea of Japan” while meeting with American troops in Japan,… the South Korean government reiterated its stance that “East Sea” must be jointly used.

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Sea of Japan is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and the name in most European languages is equivalent, but it is sometimes called by different names in surrounding countries.

The sea is called Rìběn hǎi (日本海, literally “Japan Sea”) or originally Jīng hǎi (鲸海, literally “Whale Sea”) in China,[2] Yaponskoye more (Японское море, literally “Japanese Sea”) in Russia, Chosŏn Tonghae (조선동해, literally “Korean East Sea”) in North Korea, and Donghae (동해, literally “East Sea”) in South Korea. A naming dispute exists about the sea name, with South Korea promoting the English translation of its native name as the East Sea.

Naming dispute

The use of the term “Sea of Japan” as the dominant name is a point of contention. South Korea wants the name “East Sea” to be used, either instead of or in addition to “Sea of Japan;”[3][4] while North Korea prefers the name “East Sea of Korea”.[5]

The primary issue in the dispute revolves around a disagreement about when the name “Sea of Japan” became the international standard. Japan claims the term has been the international standard since at least the early 19th century,[6] while the Koreas claim that the term “Sea of Japan” arose later while Korea was under Japanese rule, and before that occupation, other names such as “Sea of Korea” or “East Sea” were used in English.[7] The sea is referred to as the Sea of Japan according to the Encyclopædia Britannica.[8] In 2012, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), the intergovernmental organization that maintains a publication listing the limits of ocean and sea areas around the world, abandoned its most recent of several attempts in the last 25 years to revise its publication of the sea’s name. This was primarily because of the lack of agreement between the Koreas and Japan over the naming issue.[9] In September 2020, the IHO announced that it would adopt a new numerical system, also known as “S-130”. In November 2020, S-23, the previous version of the nautical chart made in 1953 will be made public as an IHO publication to demonstrate the evolutionary process from the analogue to the digital era. The IHO approved the proposal of the new official nautical chart. The new chart will be marked with a numerical identifier without a name. [10][11]

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Both sides in the dispute have put forward a number of arguments to support their claims.

Arguments based on historical maps

Arguments from North Korea

North Korea favors the exclusive use of the more nationalistic “Korean East Sea” or “East Sea of Korea” (조선동해/朝鮮東海)[6][failed verification] There are currently as of 2019 no known published maps on behalf of the North Korean government to assert their claims on the nomenclature “Korean East Sea” or “East Sea of Korea”. No American, European, Chinese, or Japanese academic scholarship has been able to independently verify the North Koreans’ nomenclature claims, nor has the IHO committee considered North Korea’s request seriously.[citation needed]

Arguments from South Korea

According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for South Korea, the name Donghae (동해, literally East Sea) has been used in Korea for over 2,000 years, including in History of the Three Kingdoms (三國史記, 1145),[7] the monument of King Gwanggaeto, and “Map of Eight Provinces of Korea” (八道總圖, 1530).[8] The first documented map to name the area the Sea of Japan was the world map drawn by the Italian missionary Matteo Ricci in China (1602) named Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖). No Japanese record published up to the late-18th century indicated any name for the body of water.[9] Furthermore, South Korea has pointed out that a few 19th-century Japanese maps referred to the sea as Chōsenkai (朝鮮海, literally Sea of Joseon), including the “Simplified Map of Japan’s Periphery” (日本邊界略圖, 1809) and “New World Map” (新製輿地全圖, 1844).[8] South Korea argues there was no standard name prior to Japan’s military expansion in the region in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Additionally, it specifically states that the name Sea of Japan was not widely used, even in Japan, as late as the mid 19th century.[10] Thus, South Korea argues that the current name reflects active promotion by Japan during a time when Korea could not represent its interests internationally.[11] In 1992, the name “East Sea” was agreed upon in South Korea and claimed by the country for the sea during its participation in the U.N. Conference on Standardization of Geographical Names.[12]

Arguments from Japan

The Japanese government claims that the name Sea of Japan was internationally used since the 17th century and established by the early 19th century, during a period in which Japan was under an isolationist policy (Sakoku) of the Tokugawa shogunate, which restricted cultural exchange and commerce with foreign countries except China and the Netherlands until 1854.[13][14] Accordingly, they state, Japan could not have, at that time, had an influence on the international community regarding the naming of the sea.[14]

The invention of the marine chronometer in the late 18th century enabled Western explorers, such as Jean-François de Galaup from France, William Robert Broughton from Britain, and Adam Johann von Krusenstern (Ivan Fyodorovich Kruzenshtern) from Russia, to measure time and longitudes on the sea precisely and map the detailed shape of the Sea of Japan.[14] Krusenstern was an admiral and explorer, who led the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe.[15] According to Japanese records, it was Krusenstern who popularized the name “Mer du Japon” (Sea of Japan) in the West. In his work “Reise um die Welt in den Jahren” (1812), he wrote, “People also call this sea area the Sea of Korea, but because only a small part of this sea touches the Korean coast, it is better to name it the Sea of Japan.”[14] The original book was published in St. Petersburg in German and Russian, translated into Dutch, French, Swedish, Italian and English, and distributed widely among Europe.[14] As a result, the international name of the sea changed from no name to the Sea of Japan, on the maps drawn by countries other than Japan or Korea during the 17th to 20th centuries.[14] Thus, the Japanese side argues that the South Koreans misunderstand the history of the name.

Surveys of antiquarian maps

The comparison of surveys of antiquarian maps by the government of Japan and South Korea[16]
Century 16th century 17th century 18th century 19th century Unknown Total
Surveyed by Japan Korea Japan Korea Japan Korea Japan Korea Japan Japan Korea
Surveyed in US FR DE Total Total US FR DE Total Total US FR DE RU Total Total US FR DE RU UK Total Total FR US FR DE RU UK Total Total
Sea of Japan 1 0 1 2 3 14 5 22 17 47 24 23 2 96 36 1059 206 487 27 50 1829 69 10 1110 254 516 29 50 1959 122
East Sea 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 39 5 0 7 1 13 341 1 0 3 0 0 4 60 0 6 0 13 1 0 20 440
Sea of Korea 0 2 0 2 2 4 2 8 94 49 159 5 307 92 6 37 4 8 147 7 188 68 198 9 8 471
Oriental Sea 0 0 3 3 4 20 14 38 14 4 57 75 2 0 3 5 8 20 32 77 129
Sea of China 3 5 12 25 16 11 36 18 86 28 8 6 8 1 56 10 0 5 1 0 32 4 22 56 39 1 203 54
Others 0 5 13 3 18 41 17 16 80 22 4 12 42 43 146
No entry
and not
32 44 76 83 83 166 116 152 4 272 109 120 5 234 340 399 9 748
Total 36 7 68 111 29 106 74 140 320 125 301 83 422 13 819 467 1285 217 655 36 58 2251 141 29 1728 410 1285 49 58 3530 762

A 1723 French map describing the sea as Mer de Corée (Sea of Korea).

A 1792 Japanese map “Chikyu Zenzu” drawn by Shiba Kōkan. The sea is described as “Inland Sea of Japan” (日本内海) and the Pacific Ocean is described as “East Sea of Japan” (日本東海).

A 1700 French map describing the sea as Mer Orientale (Eastern Sea or Oriental Sea).

To provide evidence for the date when Sea of Japan came to be used internationally, both South Korea and Japan have undertaken surveys of various historical maps.

In 2004, South Korea surveyed ancient maps archived in the British Library, the Cambridge University Library, the University of Southern California (USC) East Asian Map Collection, the U.S. Library of Congress, the National Library of Russia, and the French National Library. South Korean researchers examined 762 maps. They found that 440 maps had used Sea of Korea (Corea), Oriental Sea/East Sea, 122 had used Sea of Japan, and 200 had used other terms.[17] In the French language, the word orientale includes both the meaning of “eastern” related to compass direction and the meaning of “oriental”, the Asiatic region. The same ambiguity is present in the Russian language, with both “eastern” and “oriental” indicated by one word.

From 2003 to 2008, Japan conducted a number of surveys of different collections. In 2010, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) published their conclusions; they found that among 1,332 maps from the Berlin Library, 279 used Sea of Korea, Oriental Sea, or East Sea (or some combination thereof), 579 used Sea of Japan exclusively, 47 used China Sea (with or without other names), 33 used another term, and 384 used no term.[18] MOFA said the Struck collection (a collection of antiquarian maps owned by a European map collector) showed that out of 79 maps, 35 used Sea of Japan, 9 used the Sea of Korea, 2 used Oriental Sea, and 33 were unmarked.[18] MOFA reported that among four Russian libraries and document archives holding 51 maps, 29 used Sea of Japan, 8 used Sea of Korea, 1 used Korea Strait, 1 used East Sea, 1 used Sea of China, and 11 used no name.[19] MOFA said that among 1,213 maps from the U.S. Library of Congress, ones that gave a name for this body of water showed that 87 percent used Sea of Japan, 8 percent used Sea of Korea, 5 percent used other terms, and none used Oriental Sea or East Sea.[20] Similarly, MOFA said that 58 maps from the British Library and the University of Cambridge showed 86 percent used Sea of Japan, 14 percent used Sea of Korea, and none used Oriental Sea, East Sea, or other terms.[20] MOFA said that they looked at 1,485 maps in the French National Library. They reported that 95 percent of 215 French maps used Sea of Japan.[20]

In November 2007, the National Geographic Information Institute of South Korea published a report on a survey of 400 ancient maps.[21] According to the report, nine maps used East Sea for the water currently called Sea of Japan, while 31 maps used East Sea for the water currently called East China Sea. The number of maps that used Sea of Japan is not disclosed. Furthermore, the report says “In the late 18th century (1790–1830) the name Sea of Japan emerged. From the 19th century (1830 onward), there was a rapid increase in the use of the name Sea of Japan.” Japan stated, “This clearly shows the fallacy of the ROK’s assertion that the name Sea of Japan was the result of the Japanese policy of expansionism and colonial rule, and can be interpreted as affirming that the name Sea of Japan was in widespread use well before Japan’s colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula”.[22]

The result of the survey conducted by the National Geographic Information Institute, South Korea.

Name of the sea currently called Sea of Japan Name of other seas Total
Name East Sea Oriental Korea Bay Korea Sea Not disclosed Korea Sea
for East China Sea
East Sea
for East China Sea
Korea Sea
for Yellow Sea
Number 9 10 38 73 206 31 31 2 400

Geographical arguments

South Korea refers to its surrounding waters as the East Sea, South Sea, and West Sea.

Japan argues that, the name Sea of Japan has been and should be used because the marginal sea is separated from the Pacific Ocean by the Japanese Archipelago.[23] Korea argues that the adjective “East” describes its geographical position east of the Asian continent, although it is west of Japan and south of Russia. It states that this is analogous to the North Sea, which lies north of the European continent, but west of Scandinavian countries and east of Great Britain.[11]
However Koreans call the sea on their east side the East Sea (동해, 東海, Donghae),[24] on their south side the South Sea (남해, 南海, Namhae),[25] and on their west side the West Sea (서해, 西海, Seohae).[26][27][28][29]

Arguments relating to ambiguity

The name “East Sea” is used to refer to several different seas in Eastern Eurasia.

The Japanese Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japanese Coast Guard has claimed that the name East Sea is confusing and unsuitable as an international geographic name, because the local name for a variety of seas can be translated into English as East Sea. Examples include Dōng Hǎi (东海), the Chinese name for the East China Sea; Biển Đông, the Vietnamese name for the South China Sea; and the Baltic Sea, whose name is equivalent to East Sea in several European languages such as German (Ostsee), Swedish (Östersjön) and Finnish (Itämeri).[14] East Sea is officially used as an English name for the body of water by the Government of Vietnam[14] and the Government of Vietnam thusly uses East Sea for South China Sea in its English-language publications;[30][31]
likewise, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China uses ‘East Sea’ for the East China Sea in its English-language publications.[32][33]
Even within Japan itself the term East Sea (東海, Tōkai) is already used to refer to the parts of the Pacific Ocean east of middle and upper Honshu, as can be seen in the naming of the Tōkaidō region and the Tōkai region.
The Japanese government is concerned that the name change could set a bad precedent and cause more naming disputes worldwide.[14]

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日本海 - Wikipedia


This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.




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国際水路機関 (IHO) は、各国の海図における海洋の名称とその境界の基準となる「大洋と海の境界」(”Limits of Oceans and Seas”, Special Publication No. 23、以降は「S-23」と略称)を定めている。これによれば、この海域の呼称はS-23の初版(1928年)から第3版(1953年)まで一貫して「Japan Sea」である(「Sea of Japan」ではないことに注意)[3][4]

これを踏襲して、日本の海上保安庁海洋情報部は「日本海 (Japan Sea)」を用いている[8]が、英語版のHPにおいては「the name Sea of Japan (Japan Sea)」と「Japan Sea」の語を括弧書きにしており、「Sea of Japan」の名称を優先させているとも解釈できる表記を採用している[9]。これに対して、日本の外務省の英文による文書では「Sea of Japan」となっている[10]


ほか、フランス語では”Mer du Japon“、スペイン語では”Mar del Japón“、ドイツ語では、”Japanisches Meer“、イタリア語では”Mar del Giappone“となっており、他言語においても当該海域は「日本海」として認識されている。

その他各国での「東海」(East Sea) の使用例[編集]




バルト海を「東海」(Östersjön) と表記した地図

世界各国における「東海」(East Sea) の使用例
「東海」を使用する範囲 説明
中華人民共和国 東シナ海 中国では古くから東シナ海を「東海」と呼んできた。中国国内で使用されている中国語表記の地図では、現在も東シナ海を「東海」と表記しているほか、IHOのガイドライン「大洋と海の境界」(S-23) にも「East China Sea (Tung Hai)」としてすでに掲載されている(「Tung Hai」は「東海」の中国語読み)。このため、韓国側の主張に沿って日本海にも「東海」の呼称を併記した場合、隣接した2つの海域の双方に「東海」という意味の語が併記されることになる。
ベトナム 南シナ海 南シナ海を「東海」(Biển Đông、匾東)と呼んでいる。ベトナムは南シナ海の領有権問題で中国と対立しているため、英文でも国際名称として定着している「South China Sea」の使用を避け、「East Sea」の呼称を使用している。
バルト海 バルト海を「東海」と呼んでいる。このほか、オランダでは「東海」(Oostzee) と「バルト海」(Baltische Zee) の両方の呼称が用いられる。なお、ドイツ語では、バルト海が「Ostsee」であるのに対し、韓国は「Ostmeer」を提案しており、意味はどちらも「東海」だが区別されているほか、デンマーク語ノルウェー語スウェーデン語でもドイツ語と同様、別の単語を使うことが提案されている。これに対し、オランダ語の場合は「meer」には「」の意味しかなく、海は全て「zee」となるため、どちらの「東海」も「Oostzee」となる。
日本 紀伊半島以東の太平洋 日本では、概ね紀伊半島以東の太平洋を伝統的に「東海」と呼んできた(紀伊半島以西は「南海」)。東海地方は、この海域に面する地域と言う意味であり、太平洋に沿った街道を東海道と呼び慣わしてきた。

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国際水路機関 (IHO:International Hydrographic Organization) の「大洋と海の境界 (S-23)」による日本海の境界は、北東では外満州のSushcheva岬と樺太西岸のTuik岬とを結ぶ線、樺太南端の西能登呂岬(またはクズネツォワ岬)と北海道北端の宗谷岬(または野寒布岬)とを結ぶ線、道南恵山岬青森県尻屋崎とを結ぶ線、南東では山口県下関市村崎ノ鼻六連島北九州市八幡岬とを結ぶ線、および南西では長崎県野母崎福江島大瀬埼、韓国済州島最南端のプナム崎、全羅南道玉島珍島を結ぶ線で囲まれる海域となっており[1][2][3][4]、南西部では対馬海峡・朝鮮海峡よりも西の五島列島や韓国南部まで含まれている。しかし、一般的には九州北西部、特に長崎県西方や五島列島周辺の海域を「日本海」と呼ぶことは少なく、環境省[5]気象庁[6][7]、長崎県[8]などの資料では、これらの海域を日本海に含まず、東シナ海の一部とするなどしている。

詳細については、次の URL をご覧ください。……

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