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cronyism| 有名人の最新ニュースを読者にお届けします。

私たちは、人々が好きな有名人について読んで、それについて気分を良くすることができるスペースを作りたかったのです.私たちは、人々が有名人についてポジティブな方法でゴシップできる場所を作りたかった.
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。

私たちは、有名人の最新のゴシップを分析し、日本のポップ カルチャーの最新トレンドを分析することを何よりも愛しています。私たちはエンターテインメントのすべてに夢中になっており、私たちの情熱を世界と共有したいと考えています。当サイトへようこそ!

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Video: Corruption, Cronyism & Nepotism: TVJ All Angles – July 8 2020

私たちは、人々が好きな有名人について読んで、それについて気分を良くすることができるスペースを作りたかったのです.私たちは、人々が有名人についてポジティブな方法でゴシップできる場所を作りたかった.
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。

cronyism, 2020-07-09, Corruption, Cronyism & Nepotism: TVJ All Angles – July 8 2020, Jamaica News Today – Television Jamaica a Trusted Source for News, Sports & Entertainment.

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cronyismの使い方と意味

  • cronyism

    【名】

      〈侮蔑的〉クロニズム、縁故主義{えんこ しゅぎ}◆政界などで権力者が自分の友人に良い仕事を与えること。

    【発音】króuniìzəm、【@】クロウニイズム、【分節】cro・ny・ism

  • Marcos-style cronyism

    マルコス流の縁故主義{えんこ しゅぎ}

  • act of cronyism

    縁故主義的{えんこ しゅぎ てき}な行い[行為{こうい}

TOP >> cronyismの意味・使い方・読み方

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cronyism

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cronyism

名詞

cronyism (countable かつ uncountable, 複数形 cronyisms)

  1. Favoritism to friends without regard for their qualifications, especially by appointing them to political positions.
    Coordinate terms: nepotism, patronage
    • 2013, Randall G. Holcombe and Andrea M. Castillo, Liberalism and Cronyism: Two Rival Political and Economic Systems, Mercatus Center at George Mason University (→ISBN)
      Because of this centralized command structure, communist societies fall prey to the forces of cronyism and influence-peddling as commune members without economic power curry favor with commune leaders that control access to resources.
    • 2015, Thomas J. Gradel, Dick Simpson, Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality, University of Illinois Press (→ISBN), page 117:
      Patronage, nepotism, cronyism, abuse of power, and criminal activity flourish, sometimes for decades, in numerous town halls, police stations, and special-purpose government agencies in the suburbs.

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What Is Cronyism | Cronyism Definition | Gan Integrity

WordNet

cronyism

名詞

  1. 友人や仲間におこなうえこひいき(適性などお構いなしに地位を与えるなどの)

    favoritism shown to friends and associates (as by appointing them to positions without regard for their qualifications).

    友人や仲間におこなうえこひいき(適性などお構いなしに地位を与えるなどの)。

日本語ワードネット1.1版 (C) 情報通信研究機構, 2009-2010 License
WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved. License

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Etymology[edit]

The word “crony” first appeared in 17th-century London, according to the Oxford English Dictionary and is believed to be derived from the Greek word chronios (χρόνιος), meaning “long term”.[5]

A less likely but oft-quoted source is the supposed Irish term Comh-Roghna, which translates as “close pals”, or mutual friends.[citation needed]

Concept[edit]

Government officials are particularly susceptible to accusations of cronyism, as they spend taxpayers‘ money. Many democratic governments are encouraged to practice administrative transparency in accounting and contracting, however, there often is no clear delineation of when an appointment to government office is “cronyism”.[6]

In the private sector, cronyism exists in organizations, often termed “the old boys’ club” or “the golden circle”; again, the boundary between cronyism and “networking” is difficult to delineate.[7]

It is not unusual for a politician to surround themself with highly qualified subordinates, and to develop social, business, or political friendships leading to the appointment to office of friends, likewise in granting government contracts. In fact, the counsel of such friends is why the officeholder successfully obtained their powerful position; therefore, cronyism usually is easier to perceive than to demonstrate and prove.[citation needed][original research?][inconsistent] Politicians with representatives of business, other special interests, as unions and professional organizations get “crony-business” done in political agreements, especially by “reasonable” and lucrative honorariums to the politician for making speeches, or by legal donations to ones election campaign or to ones political party, etc.[citation needed][original research?]

Cronyism describes relationships existing among mutual acquaintances in private organizations where business, business information, and social interaction are exchanged among influential personnel. This is termed crony capitalism, and is an ethical breach of the principles of the market economy; in advanced economies, crony capitalism is a breach of market regulations.

Given crony capitalism’s nature, these dishonest business practices are frequently (yet not exclusively) found in societies with ineffective legal systems. Consequently, there is an impetus upon the legislative branch of a government to ensure enforcement of the legal code capable of addressing and redressing private party manipulation of the economy by the involved businessmen and their government cronies.

The economic and social costs of cronyism are paid by society. Those costs are in the form of reduced business opportunity for the majority of the population, reduced competition in the market place, inflated consumer goods prices, decreased economic performance, inefficient business investment cycles, reduced motivation in affected organizations, and the diminution of economically productive activity.[7] A practical cost of cronyism manifests in the poor workmanship of public and private community projects.

Cronyism is self-perpetuating; cronyism then begets a culture of cronyism. This can only be apprehended by a comprehensive, effective, and enforced legal code, with empowered government agencies which can effect prosecutions in the courts.

Some instances[examples needed] of cronyism are readily transparent. With others,[examples needed] it is only in hindsight that the qualifications of the alleged “crony” must be evaluated. All appointments that are suspected of being cronyism are controversial. The appointed party may choose to either suppress disquiet or ignore it, depending upon the society’s level of freedom of expression and individual personal liberty.

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What is Cronyism?

Cronyism is a corrupt practice where an individual in a position of power and influence abuses their authority to dispense favors to their friends and allies. These favors can include, but aren’t limited to:

  • Preferentially awarding jobs to friends and personal associates
  • Preferentially awarding contracts or making vendor agreements with friends and personal associates
  • Preferentially awarding appointments to public office to friends and personal associates

As with price fixing, cronyism at the organizational level may be categorized as one of two types: horizontal or vertical cronyism.

In horizontal cronyism, the exchange of favors takes place between individuals who are on the same level in a hierarchy. Members in a union, or individuals in a friend group or social group can engage in cronyism by using their separate offices to advance the collective interests of the group instead of their employers.

Vertical cronyism takes place within the hierarchies of an organization, where an individual with some authority abuses their power to bestow unearned favors, rewards, or promotions on a subordinate who may be a close friend or personal associate. Vertical cronyism can allow individuals to establish networks of influence within an organization, making it easier to conceal corruption from auditors and evade the accountability efforts of executive leadership.

What is the Difference Between Nepotism and Cronyism?

Nepotism and cronyism are two of the most common types of favoritism occurring within organizations. Although nepotism and cronyism both involve corrupt abuses of power, they are not exactly the same thing. While cronyism involves preferential treatment and abuse of authority to benefit friends and personal associates, nepotism usually refers to the dispensation of special treatment to the actor’s children or immediate family members.

Is Cronyism a Crime?

Cronyism is legal in the United States, but that doesn’t mean that there are no consequences.

When managers promote their personal associates instead of the most qualified candidate, the long-term result for the organization is poor performance and failure to maximize value for shareholders. Cronyism is also understood as a form of discrimination that harms the career prospects of honest, talented, and hard-working employees hoping for advancement in their careers.

In some cases, acts of cronyism that resulted in an unqualified hire have resulted in allegations of age-based, gender-based or racial discrimination, practices that violate the United States Civil Rights Act.

How Can You Prevent Cronyism in an Organization?

Cronyism within an organization can damage morale, reduce employee retention, and negatively impact business results. Organizations can work to eliminate cronyism by:

  • Establishing clear organizational policies against cronyism with strict penalties for violating ethical norms.
  • Enforcing a fair and merit-based selection process for all job roles.
  • Establishing a fully transparent process for post jobs, conducting interviews, and hiring new staff members.
  • Establishing a truly anonymous whistleblower program where employees can report concerns about cronyism within their department.

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ユーザーがトピックに関連して検索するキーワード cronyism cronyism

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結論として、日本のエンタメニュースは興味深くエキサイティングな話題です。日本の文化やエンターテインメント業界について学ぶことはたくさんあります。日本のエンタメニュースはとても面白いです。新鮮でわくわくする情報が満載です。ぜひ、この本を読んで、この国とその文化についてもっと学んでください。この記事が有益で役立つことを願っています。読んでくれてありがとう!

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