shuri castle| 有名人の最新ニュースを読者にお届けします。
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
shuri castle, /shuri-castle,
Video: Historic Shuri Castle in Japan’s Okinawa ravaged by fire
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
shuri castle, 2019-10-31, Historic Shuri Castle in Japan’s Okinawa ravaged by fire, Fire has devastated an ancient castle on the Japanese island of Okinawa.
It is one of the region’s most popular UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Al Jazeera’s Rob McBride reports.
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#ShuriCastle #Japan #ShuriCastleFire, Al Jazeera English
About Shurijo Castle
Shurijo Castle symbolizes the history and culture of Okinawa, and its history is that of the Ryukyu Kingdom itself.
The date of construction is uncertain, but it was clearly in use as a castle during the Sanzan period (1322–1429). It is thought that it was probably built during the Gusuku period, like many other castles of Okinawa. When King Shō Hashi unified the three principalities of Okinawa and established the Ryukyu Kingdom, he used Shuri as a residence. At the same time, Shuri flourished as the capital and continued to do so during the Second Shō Dynasty.
For 450 years from 1429, it was the royal court and administrative center of the Ryukyu Kingdom. It was the focal point of foreign trade, as well as the political, economic, and cultural heart of the Ryukyu Islands. According to records, the castle burned down several times, and rebuilt each time. During the reign of Shō Nei, samurai forces from the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma seized Shuri on 6 May 1609. The Japanese withdrew soon afterwards, returning Shō Nei to his throne two years later, and the castle and city to the Ryukyuans, though the kingdom was now a vassal state under Satsuma’s suzerainty and would remain so for roughly 250 years.
In the 1850s, Commodore Perry, twice forced his way into Shuri Castle, but was denied an audience with the king both times. In 1879, the kingdom was annexed by the Empire of Japan and the last king, Shō Tai, was compelled to move to Tokyo, and in 1884, he was “elevated” to the rank of marquess in the Japanese aristocracy. Subsequently, the castle was used as a barracks by the Imperial Japanese Army. The Japanese garrison withdrew in 1896, but not before having created a series of tunnels and caverns below it.
In 1908, Shuri City bought the castle from the Japanese government; however, it did not have funding to renovate it. In 1923, thanks to Japanese architect Ito Chuta, Seiden survived demolition after being re-designated a prefectural Shinto shrine known as Okinawa Shrine. In 1925, it was designated as a national treasure. Despite its decline, historian George H. Kerr described the castle as “one of the most magnificent castle sites to be found anywhere in the world, for it commands the countryside below for miles around and looks toward distant sea horizons on every side.”
World War II
During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army had set up its headquarters in the castle underground, and by early 1945 had established complex lines of defense and communications in the regions around Shuri, and across the southern part of the island as a whole. The Japanese defenses, centered on Shuri Castle, held off the massive American assault from 1 April through the month of May 1945. Beginning on 25 May, and as the final part of the Okinawa campaign, the American battleship Mississippi shelled it for three days and by 27 May it was ablaze. But the Japanese had conducted a skillful retreat days before, abandoning Shuri, and forcing the Americans to start a new battle again in the south. US Marine and Army units secured the castle against little resistance. On 29 May, Maj. Gen. Pedro del Valle—commanding the 1st Marine Division—ordered Captain Julian D Dusenbury of Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines to capture the castle, which represented both strategic and psychological blows for the Japanese and was a milestone in the campaign.
After the war, the University of the Ryukyus was established in 1950 on the castle site, where it remained until 1975. In 1958, Shureimon was reconstructed and, starting from 1992, the 20th anniversary of reversion, the main buildings and surrounding walls of the central castle were reconstructed. At present, the entire area around the castle has been established as “Shuri Castle Park”. In 2000, along with other gusuku and related sites, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, only remnants such as stone walls and building foundations extant before 1950 are officially designated as World Heritage. In addition, 2000 saw the Shureimon gate at Shuri Castle featured on the new 2000 yen note, which entered circulation to commemorate the new millennium and the 26th G8 summit, which was held in Okinawa.
In the morning of 31 October 2019, a large fire broke out and burned down the Seiden, the main hall, and also the Hokuden and Nanden, adjacent buildings to the north and south. A security alarm went off around 2:30 a.m., and a call to emergency services was placed around 10 minutes later. The Seiden, Hokuden, Nanden and Bandokoro were completely destroyed. According to domestic news sources, “Six castle buildings occupying some 4,200 square metres (45,000 sq ft) in total were gutted.” The fire was put out around 1:30 p.m.
Okinawa Police later told domestic broadcaster NHK that a security guard who checked on the alarm found that the main entrance doors to the Seiden were closed. When the guard unlocked the shutter and went inside, the interior was already filled with smoke. After police initially ruled out arson, authorities said that the fire was likely caused by an electrical fault after a burned electrical distribution board was found in the northeast side of where the Seiden had stood. Police investigations later revealed that the lighting panel had no signs of short circuiting, though a surveillance camera did capture flashing light in the Seiden main hall shortly before and after the fire.
Shurijo Castle after it was destroyed by fire in 2019.
The fire was the fifth time that Shuri Castle has been destroyed following previous incidents in 1453, 1660, 1709 and 1945. Okinawa Governor Denny Tamaki said after the fire that Shuri Castle is “a symbol of the Ryukyu Kingdom, an expression of its history and culture”, and has vowed to rebuild it. Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said that Shuri Castle is “an extremely important symbol of Okinawa”. The Japanese Government is considering supplemental appropriations to support restoration work. UNESCO also said it would be ready to assist with Shuri Castle’s reconstruction. A crowdfunding campaign set up by Naha City officials for the rebuilding of Shuri Castle had received over $3.2 million in donations as of 6 November 2019.
As of 10 February 2020, rebuilding efforts to restore the destroyed sections of Shuri Castle were underway. In May of 2021, a scale replica of the castle measuring one twenty fifth of the size of the actual structure was recreated at the Tobu World Square theme park in Kinugawa Onsen.
The political and cultural center of the Ryukyu Kingdom is a must-visit for any trip to Okinawa
For approximately 450 years, Shurijo Castle was the center of politics, diplomacy, and culture of the Ryukyu Kingdom. Shurijo Castle is divided into three areas: a ceremonial area where rituals and prayers were conducted; a residential area for the royal family called the Ouchibara, and a central administrative area that contains the Seiden main hall. The architecture of the buildings of Shurijo Castle incorporate both Chinese and Japanese construction techniques.
The fiery history of Shurijo Castle
Shurijo Castle has burned down many times in its lengthy history. It burned down for the first time only 24 years after the Ryukyu Kingdom was established by the first Ryukyu King, Sho Hashi (1372–1439). After his death, there were several short-term rulers. However, conflict broke out over who would be the sixth ruler of the kingdom; Shiro, the son of the fifth king, or Furi, the sixth son of the first king. In the ensuing conflict, Shurijo Castle burned down, and both would-be kings were killed. As a result, Sho Taikyu, the seventh son of Sho Hashi, became the sixth king, and began rebuilding work.
Shurijo Castle burned down a total of three times during the Ryukyu Kingdom era, and was heavily damaged after the islands of the kingdom were incorporated into Japan as Okinawa Prefecture. The castle burned down again during WWII, but was restored in 1992.
In 2000, the Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu, which includes Shurijo Castle, earned UNESCO World Heritage status. Although areas of Shurijo Castle continue to be restored and opened to the public, another terrible fire in October 2019 resulted in the complete destruction of the Seiden main hall, and other important castle buildings. Restoration work is underway; you can learn more about it here.
How Shurijo has been restored
The problem faced when restoring Shurijo Castle is how to authentically recreate the buildings when virtually all resources, including photos and drawings of the castle, have been destroyed by fire. The restoration of the castle prior to the fire in 2019, was a large-scale effort that involved gathering information from members of the community with detailed knowledge of the castle pre-WWII. Details gathered through interviews and drawings of the Seiden from 1768 informed the restoration work and made it possible to restore many parts of the castle.
Many important events take place at Shurijo Castle Park throughout the year. Highlights include the Shurijo Castle Festival in autumn, which features traditional entertainment, a parade, and a ceremony. At New Year, formal celebrations are conducted in the grounds. A ceremony (ukeejo) announcing the opening of the park is also held each morning outside the Houshinmon Gate, five minutes before the park opens.
For updates on the status of reconstruction efforts of Shurijo Castle, and the facilities in Shurijo Castle Park, check here.
A red castle that ruled a long-lost kingdom
When you wander among the majestic buildings that make up Shuri Castle in Okinawa , you might feel as if you have stepped back in time. However, these lovingly restored buildings are only decades old.
Nonetheless, they are steeped in history, and many of the castle remains are older than the recent renovations. From the magnificent architecture to the exhibits, there is plenty to see and do in and around the castle complex.
- Shurei-mon Gate, built by King Sho Sei in the early 16th century
- Sonohyan Utaki Ishimon, a stone gate entrance to the sacred grove where prayers for a safe journey were given whenever the king left the castle
- Kinjocho Ishidatamimichi, a beautiful stone pathway that leads through a grove of trees said to be more than 300 years old
- Discover the art of creating bingata, ryusen, and other handmade Okinawan textiles at Shuri Ryusen, a few minutes’ walk from Shuri Castle
Shuri Castle is a five-minute bus ride (or a 15-20-minute walk) from Shuri Station on the Okinawa Monorail.
It can also be reached by bus from central Naha. Take the number one bus and get off at Shurijo Koen Iriguchi.
Shuri Ryusen is a short walk from Shuri Castle, on Shuriyamagawacho, and is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. seven days a week.
Shuri was the capital of Okinawa until the 1870s. It is now part of Naha, the new capital
Shuri Castle is one of five castles designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites
The striking red “brick” roof tiles are a hallmark of Okinawa, and very different from castles elsewhere in Japan
On October 31 2019, a fire completely destroyed most of the main castle structures. After the fire, reconstruction preparations with the volunteers have begun and are scheduled to be completed in 2026. During the reconstruction, visitors can tour the valuable reconstruction process.
Rising from the ashes
The castle was built in the 13th century by Shunbajunki, the second king of Chuzan, and it was to play a key part in many of the struggles in the centuries that followed.
Shuri Castle has been destroyed many times over the centuries, each time rising again from the ashes. Most recently, the castle was bombed in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa and the castle you see before you today was reconstructed in 1992.
The castle stands on top of a hill, providing a commanding view of Naha .
The interior of the main building has been restored in its original style, with modern museums in the north and south halls. The exhibits bring to life the history of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The north and south halls were destroyed by fire on 31 October 2019, and are currently being prepared for restoration.
The King’s Gate
Don’t miss out on a visit to Shurei-mon Gate , originally built in the early 16th century by King Sho Sei. It was used for ceremonial entrances to the castle, and you can’t help but feel regal as you walk beneath the seven-meter high red-tiled roof. The gate, like the castle, has been destroyed many times and was last rebuilt in 1958.
To commemorate the 28th G8 summit, which was held in Okinawa , a 2,000 yen note was specially printed, featuring a picture of Shurei-mon Gate . Incidentally, the word shurei is often confused with Shuri, but it is actually a Chinese word meaning “eternal courtesy.”
* The information on this page may be subject to change due to COVID-19.
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