私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
Video: さいごの東京駅発長距離急行EF58157桜島高千穂号発車 1975年
私たちは、何年もの間、日本のエンターテインメント ニュースを生き、呼吸してきた情熱的なエンターテインメント ニュース ジャンキーの小さなチームです。
sakurajima, 2007-05-26, さいごの東京駅発長距離急行EF58157桜島高千穂号発車 1975年, さいごの東京駅発長距離急行列車（東京－西鹿児島直通急行）「桜島・高千穂」号の東京駅発車のすがた。1975年撮影です。残念ながら音声はありません。
The express “Sakurajima-Takachiho” departure in Tokyo station., GG高速進行
A map of Sakurajima in 1902, showing it as a distinct island.
Sakurajima is in the 25 km (15 mi)-wide Aira caldera, which formed in an enormous “blow-out-and-cave-in” eruption around 22,000 years ago. Several hundred cubic kilometres of ash and pumice were ejected, causing the magma chamber underneath the erupting vents to collapse. The resulting caldera is over 20 km (12 mi) across. Tephra fell as far as 1,000 km (620 mi) from the volcano. Sakurajima is a modern active vent of the same Aira caldera volcano.
Sakurajima was formed by later activity within the caldera, beginning about 13,000 years ago. It is about 8 km (5 mi) south of the centre of the caldera. Its first eruption in recorded history was in 963 AD. Most of its eruptions are strombolian, affecting only the summit areas, but larger plinian eruptions have occurred in 1471–1476, 1779–1782 and 1914.
Volcanic activity at Kita-dake ended around 4,900 years ago: later eruptions have been centered on Minami-dake. Since 2006, activity has centred on Showa crater, to the east of the summit of Minami-dake.
|Start date||January 11, 1914|
|Impact||Pre-eruption earthquakes killed at least 35 people and an additional 23 people died; caused an evacuation and significant changes to the local topography.|
A torii in Kurokami-Cho, Kagoshima is half-buried by ash and stones caused by the 1914 eruption.
The 1914 eruption began on January 11 and was the most powerful in twentieth-century Japan. The volcano had been dormant for over a century until 1914.
Almost all residents had left the island in the previous days; several large earthquakes had warned them that an eruption was imminent.
Initially, the eruption was very explosive, generating eruption columns and pyroclastic flows, but after a very large earthquake on January 12, and another the day after, it became effusive, generating a large lava flow. The January 12 earthquake killed 35, and in total, 58 people died.
Lava flows filled the narrow strait between the island and the mainland, turning it into a peninsula.
Lava flows are rare in Japan—because the silica content of the magmas is high, explosive eruptions are far more common—but the lava flows at Sakurajima continued for months.
The island grew, engulfing several smaller islands nearby, and eventually became connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. Parts of Kagoshima Bay became significantly shallower, and it made tides higher.
During the last stages of the eruption, emptying of the underlying magma chamber sank the centre of the Aira Caldera by about 60 cm (24 in). This showed that Sakurajima draws its magma from the same magma reservoir that fed the ancient caldera-forming eruption. The eruption partly inspired a 1914 movie, The Wrath of the Gods, centering on a family curse that ostensibly causes the eruption.
An image taken from the International Space Station showing Sakurajima and its surroundings on January 10, 2013
Sakura-jima eruption as seen on August 18, 2013
Sakurajima’s activity became more prominent in 1955, and the volcano has been erupting almost constantly ever since. Thousands of small explosions happen each year, throwing ash to heights of up to a few kilometers above the mountain. The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory was set up in 1960 to monitor these eruptions.
Monitoring of the volcano and predictions of large eruptions are particularly important because it is in a densely populated area, with the city of Kagoshima’s 680,000 residents just a few kilometers from the volcano. The city conducts regular evacuation drills, and a number of shelters have been built where people can take refuge from falling volcanic debris.
In light of the dangers it presents to nearby populations, Sakurajima was designated a Decade Volcano in 1991, identifying it as worthy of particular study as part of the United Nations‘ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.
Sakurajima is part of the Kirishima-Yaku National Park, and its lava flows are a major tourist attraction. The area around Sakurajima contains several hot spring resorts. One of the main agricultural products of Sakurajima is a huge basketball-sized white radish (Sakurajima daikon).
On March 10, 2009, Sakurajima erupted, sending debris up to 2 km (1.2 mi). An eruption had been expected following a series of smaller explosions over the weekend. It is not thought there was any damage caused.
An eruption occurred from the Minami-dake summit crater at 5:38 on Sunday, August 9, 2010, sending debris up to 5000 m (16,000 ft).
In 2011 and 2012, Sakurajima experienced several significant eruptions; volcanic activity continued into 2013.
Photographer Martin Rietze captured a rare picture of lightning within the ash plume in January 2013 during a magma ejection, which was a NASA astronomy pic of the day in March 2013.
On August 18, 2013, the volcano erupted from Showa crater and produced its highest recorded plume of ash since 2006, rising 5,000 metres high and causing darkness and significant ash falls on the central part of Kagoshima city. The eruption occurred at 16:31 and was the 500th eruption of the year.
In August 2015, Japan’s meteorological agency issued a level 4 emergency warning, which urges residents to prepare to evacuate.
Scientists warned that a major eruption could soon take place at the volcano; it eventually did erupt around 20:00 on February 5, 2016.
After a long pause of eruptions at the vent, the eruptions abruptly stopped there and returned to the Showa crater, on April 4, 2016, some 8–9 days preceding major earthquakes on the Median Tectonic Line near Kumamoto, Japan. Then, three months later, on July 26, it spewed volcanic ash 5,000 m (16,000 ft) into the air.
On October 3, 2020, at 07:35 UTC, the volcano erupted once again, this time from the Aira caldera. A volcanic ash advisory for aviation was issued by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) at 07:43 UTC, showing the ash cloud to be stationary and reaching FL100 (10,000 feet).
On July 24, 2022, at 20:05 JST, an explosive eruption occurred at the summit crater of the volcano, and cinders scattered up to 2.5 km from the crater. Following this eruption, at 20:50 JST, the Japan Meteorological Agency raised the eruption alert level from Level 3 to Level 5, the highest level, and urged maximum precaution and evacuation. This was the first time an eruption alert level 5 has been issued for Sakurajima.
15 minutes by ferry from Kagoshima Port, there is Sakurajima, the symbol of Kagoshima, It is a compound active volcano made up of the North Peak and the South Peak . It’s a rare volcano constantly emits smoke and spreads ash.
Sakurajima Island View busrun in west area of Sakurajima is recommended as major sightseeing spots are included in the route. The view from Yunohira Observatory at the highest accessible point on Sakurajima, is superb. There are other facilities such as Sakurajima Visitor Center where you can learn about Sakurajima, and michinoeki roadside station which deals in local specialties and souvenirs. You can enjoy natural hot spring at Rainbow Sakurajima Inn near the port. There are various programmes such as kayaking, bike riding and volcanic ash art workshops are available.
Fill your day with activities on Sakurajima!
Experience Sakurajima, one of the world’s rare active volcanoes, up close and personal by kayak, rental bike, and more!
Feel the wonders of Sakurajima with the whole family!
Sakurajima has countless spots where the whole family can relax. Try your hand at artwork made using volcanic ash, or refresh your weary feet with a soak in the 100-meter long footbath.
|Access||・ From the city area, 8 minutes’ walk from streetcar stop toward Kagoshima Port Sakurajima Ferry Terminal, then approx. 15 minutes on Sakurajima Ferry from Kagoshima Port
・ From the city area, 3 minutes’ walk from Suizokukan-mae stop on the #16 city bus line toward Kagoshima Port Sakurajima Ferry Terminal, then approx. 15 minutes on Sakurajima Ferry from Kagoshima Port
|Links||Feature article “Sakurajima Tourist Information, Complete Guide”
The Sakurajima Association Secretariat Official Site
Sakurajima Ferry Official Site
Don’t miss it! Sakurajima-Kinkowan Geopark
– The relationship between the volcano and people –
1.The volcano and people are coexisting!
How amazing that 600,000 people live alongside the active Sakurajima volcano that actively erupts on a daily basis. Disaster prevention measures are taken using the world’s best high-tech volcanic monitoring system. This allows people to live near the active volcano in safety. Kagoshima is a unique place where an active volcano and an urban city coexist.
2.The sea made by the volcano!
Kinko-Bay spreading in front of Sakurajima was actually made by the volcano. About 30,000 years ago, a large amount of magma was released after a huge eruption occurred in the inner side of Kinko-Bay. This caused the land to become empty and dented. The dented area is called Aira Caldera. The 200m-deep Kinko-Bay was formed after the seawater entered in it.
3.The eruption of Sakurajima
The history of Sakurajima is called the history of eruptions. There have been 17 huge eruptions up until today. The history of Sakurajima’s volcanic activity can be divided into 2 periods. From the time Sakurajima was born until 5,000 years ago, the North Peak was active. Since 4,500 years ago, the South Peak has been active ever since. As the two volcanoes; the North Peak and the South Peak line in a row, Sakurajima looks wide.
The biggest eruption in the history of Sakurajima occurred about 13,000 years ago. The eruption covered Kagoshima city with ash as deep as 1m and the whole of Kagoshima prefecture was covered with at least 10cm of ash. Another huge eruption that changed the shape of Sakurajima occurred in 1914. The lava flow connected the former Sakurajima island to Osumi peninsula during the eruption. Kurokami Buried Shrine Gate and Karasujima Observatory tell us how huge the eruption was.
4.Life on Kagoshima
The residents of Kagoshima do not care about the small eruptions. They are used to eruptions because Sakurajima erupts over hundreds of times each year. Since the people of Kagoshima have coexisted with the volcano for many years, disaster prevention measures are well organized.
You may find the residents’ knowledge to coexist with the volcano by observing their daily lives. For example, there are yellow Kokuhai Bukuro bags for collecting volcanic ash in Kagoshima. Also, students in Sakurajima wear helmets to protect their heads from volcanic debris.
5.You can experience Sakurajima and Kinko-Bay!
Sakurajima-Kinkowan Geopark has many Geo-Sites where you can play and learn about the land and its long volcanic history. Find out how the people have lived with the volcano by learning about the products and historical sites of the land related to the volcano. You can also enjoy exciting activities, tours, unique products and local meals. Where would you like to begin?
Relationship between the volcano and people – ６ stories
Relation with the landscape and geology
About 29,000 years ago in Kagoshima, there was a huge eruption that was a million times bigger than the eruptions we currently see at Sakurajima.
Kagoshima was covered with magma flow that was as thick as 60m.
The large amount of magma that jetted out caused the land to sink created Aira Caldera. Kagoshima was covered with a mixture of volcanic stone, ash and gas that were combined under a heat of 600 degrees, a phenomenon called pyroclastic flow. This covered the mountains and valleys of Kagoshima, making it into flat land within a week. Shirasu tableland was later created through the rivers that carved out the land.
Sakurajima’ s first volcanic activity started 26,000 years ago in the southern part of the caldera. Repeated eruptions formed the North Peak; the first volcanic body and South Peak; the second volcanic body of Sakurajima, shifting the position of the crater. Shirasu tableland where you stand today, Sakurajima and Kinko-Bay were all connected to the huge eruption that took place many years ago.
The spot to experience the power of the volcano!
Looking down Aira Caldera from Terayama-park observatory spot, you will notice a huge dented area at the far end of Kinko-Bay. This is the caldera. Experience the great power of the volcano while having a great view of Sakurajima!
Check the surface of the mountain!
The surface of Kita-Dake is rough compared to that of Minami-Dake. The Showa Crater located in the eastern steep of Minami-Dake is covered by volcanic products from new eruptions, so its surface is very smooth.
It is of ten mistaken that Shirasu tableland is made up of ash from Sakurajima millions of years ago. However, Shirasu tableland was actually created by AiraCaldera’s huge eruption only in a week.
Although Sakuraijma looks like one mountain, it is actually consisted of two volcanoes, Kita-Dake and Minami-Dake! Kita-Dake was active from the birth of Sakurajima which is 26,000 years ago until about 5,000 years ago. Later on, the crater moved to the South, and its volcanic activity started about 4,500 years ago and still continues today.
These two mountains that range from north to south make up Sakurajima. This is why Sakurajima looks wide from Kagoshima city.
Relationship with nature
Plant species cannot live under severe volcanic environment? No,there are Japanese pampas grass and Japanese knotweed near the crater and they are strong against volcanic gases. A little further from the crater, there are Eurya Japonica and Alnus firma. In the area the furthest form the crater, Machilus thunbergii and Japanese black pine can be seen.
The plants on the ground are covered with lava and the ground is filled with rocks by each eruption, but plants grow back every time. At first, Mosses and Lichenes start to grow, and then a meadow will be formed. Intolerant trees such as the Japanese black pine follow. Then, shade trees such as Muchilus thunbergii will come out. In this way, the volcanic ground becomes a forest over many years. Sakurajima is a natural museum because you can observe the changes of vegetation on the variety of lava made in different eras.
Watch plant species of three generations!
Arimura beach has lava of 3 different eras; Annei(1779), Taisho(1914) and Showa(1946). Find out the difference between the old lava covered by trees and the new lava partically covered with Japanese black pine on the volcanic rocks!
Dolphins of Kinko-Bay are greedy!?
Kinko-bay is full of wonders, because it’s made by a volcano! The 200m-deep sea is a dented area which was made by the huge eruption occurred 3 million years ago. There is a small submarine caldera called Wakamiko Caldera in the inner side of Kinko-Bay which erupts volcanic gas underground.
The volcanic gas floating on the surface of the sear called Tagiri (which means ‘to boil’ in Japanese) shows the existance of a submarine caldera.
Also, there are dolphins, about 1,000 species of fish and rare creatures such as Satsumahaorimushi in Kinko-Bay. Chimney (the injection holes of hot water) and rare metals are also found in the bottom of the sea.
Changing ‘disliked’ ash into industry!
There are many treasures utilizing blessing of the volcano and the sea in Sakurajima.
For example, Sakurajima small mandarins grow on the sunny slope utilizing the good drainage of the volcanic geology and the sunshine reflected by Kinko-Bay.
There are also pottery used volcanic ash, ash-dried fish, glass work and cosmetics using Shirasu, and grilled meat plates made by lava. The hot springs are absolutely a blessing of the volcano. Kagoshima has the most hot springs among the capital cities in Japan. The people in Kagoshima are strong enough to make good use of the “disliked” volcanic ash in the industry.
The Castle of Satsuma is Shirasu Tableland!
The history of Kagoshima cannot be described without the volcano. The remains of the shell mound in Sakurajima is proof that people have beeen living with the volcano since the Jomon period of Japan. There is a trace of a debris flow as well. However people have continued to live on Sakurajima as the blessing outweight the disaster.
Also, the stone culture of Kagoshima owes to the volcano. Welded tuff, a volcanic ejecta, is softer than other stones, thus it is easy to process. Many historical buildings such as the machine shop of Shuseikan(*2) and the stone bridge are made of welded tuff.
Access to Kurokami Buried Shirine Gate
- You cannot go to Kurokami Buried Shrine Gate by Sakurajima Island View Bus.
- A One-day Pass is reasonable and convenient for the routes below.
- Take Kagoshima city bus #60 From ‘Sakurajima Port’ to ‘Higashi Shirahama’ (about 20 min)
At ‘Higashi Shirahama’ Take Kagoshima city bus #70
From ‘Higashi Shirahama’ to’Kurokami chugakko mae’ (about 20 min)
Take Kagoshima city bus #60
From ‘Sakurajima Port’ to ‘Kurokami Chugakko mae’ (about 35 min)
Car or taxi
- About 20km from Sakurajima Port (about 30 min)
Kagoshima’s high quality service!
People of Kagoshima live besides the active volcano, Sakurajima. The Annei eruption in Edo Period made people move from Kurokami to Uenohara. From Uenohara, they were able to see the beautiful scenery of their hometown, Sakurajima.
Also the disaster heritage Kurokami Buried Shrine Gate, 2m of the gate was buried by the ash in a single day, has been kept as it was to reminds the residents of the disaster. The gate is now located inside Kurokami junior high school. While Sakurajima has has been very active over 50 years, people in Kagoshima have lived coping with the ash, applying their knowledge and experience well into their life.
桜島は姶良(あいら)カルデラ(南北17 km、東西23 km)の南縁部に生じた安山岩～デイサイトの成層火山で、北岳、中岳、南岳の3峰と 権現山、鍋山、引ノ平などの側火山からなり、人口が密集する鹿児島市の市街地に近接している。 有史以降の山頂噴火は南岳に限られるが、山腹や付近の海底からも噴火している。 「天平宝字」「文明」「安永」「大正」の噴火はすべて山腹噴火でありプリニー式噴火で始まり、火砕流の発生、多量の溶岩の流出と推移した。 「昭和」噴火も山頂火口そばの斜面で発生し、溶岩を流出した。 1914年(大正3年)の噴火前、桜島は鹿児島湾内の火山島であったが、大正噴火で流出した溶岩により大隅半島と陸続きになった。 現在は東西12.2 km、南北9.5 km、周囲52 kmの不規則な楕円形の小半島となっている。 南岳山頂火口は1955年(昭和30年)10月の爆発以来今日まで長期間にわたって活発な噴火活動を続けており、噴出物(火山ガス・火山灰・火山礫・噴石など)や 爆発時の空振、また、二次災害としての土石流などにより各方面に被害を及ぼしている。 南岳の東山腹8合目に位置する昭和火口は、2006（平成18）年6月に58年ぶりとなる噴火活動を再開し、2008年以降活発な噴火活動が継続している。 南岳山頂火口及び昭和火口から2 km以内は立ち入り禁止となっている。安山岩～デイサイトのSiO2量は56.5～67.2 wt.% である。
桜島の発達史は古期北岳、新期北岳、南岳の3つのステージに区分できる。 古期北岳の活動(約2万6千年から2万4千年前)の後、休止期間を挟み、新期北岳の活動が1万3千年前から開始し、少なくとも10回の軽石噴火を繰り返し、約5千年前には活動を停止した。 その後、南岳の活動へ移り、歴史時代に4回の軽石噴火が発生した。
- 桜島 有史以降の火山活動
ユーザーがトピックに関連して検索するキーワード sakurajima sakurajima
東京, 東京駅.急行, 長距離急行､長距離列車, 桜島, 高千穂, EF58, 電気機関車, 西鹿児島, 旧客, 旧型客車, くろがねのみち, Tokyo station, express, Electric locomotive, EF58157